Histology of Circulatory System

Histology of Circulatory System

Examine the following slide, illustrate the specified view, label the specified features. Note the function of each type of blood cell.  Record the Vernier Scale addresses of each cell type.  The plate numbers are in di Fiore’s Atlas of Normal Histology, 9th Ed.  Histology of arteries and veins is at the bottom of this page.

Slide 1. Blood smear, human, 400x, VE: pp. 65, 67 (see also pp. 62-73.)

This slide has been stained with Wright’s stain, a complex stain containing eosin (a red stain) and methylene blue.  They allow differential staining of various leukocytes.
Illustrate in a single LARGE view: five or six erythrocytes and platelets, and then at least one each of each class of leukocyte. (Scan at 100x to find the rare leukocytes, then switch to 400x) Record the location of each cell type using the Vernier scale on the mechanical stage. Fill in addresses and copy in the form at bottom of page. Give function of each class (from text or lecture).

erythrocytes most numerous, featureless pink circles
platelets numerous, small, irregular shape and size, reddish (trigger clumping)

LEUKOCYTES:

AGRANULOCYTES

Class:
lymphocyte

Appearance
round nucleus, very little cytoplasm, smallest of leukocytes

Function
immune cells, either B cells or T cells

% total leukocytes
25 – 33%

vernier fore-aft _____________________

vernier lateral ______________________

Class
monocyte

Appearance
varied nuclear shape, “like a phone receiver” more cytoplasm, largest of leukocytes

Function
immature macrophage (part of the diffuse reticuloendothelial system of the body)

% total leukocytes
3 – 7%

vernier fore-aft _____________________

vernier lateral ______________________

GRANULOCYTES

Class
neutrophil

Appearance
numerous, pale cytoplasm, distinct multiple nuclear lobes also called polymorphonucleocytes = PMNs.

Function
major class of phagocytes, kill with H2O2, attract other phagocytes

% total leukocytes
57 – 67%

vernier fore-aft _____________________

vernier lateral ______________________

Class
eosinophil

Appearance
reddish granules in cytoplasm, nucleus bilobed

Function
phagocytose Ag-Ab complexes

% total leukocytes
1 – 3%

vernier fore-aft _____________________

vernier lateral ______________________

Class
basophil

Appearance
cytoplasmic grains dark blue, less numerous, lobes less distinct, larger

Function
Similar to mast cells, contain histamine and heparin

% total leukocytes
0.5 – 1%

vernier fore-aft _____________________

vernier lateral ______________________

Other images of leukocytes

basophil_P4013817

basophil:

eosinophils:

monocyte_P4013823

monocyte:

neutrophils:

Slide 2.  Artery and vein (H1750) p. 113 & 115, 100x: endothelium
Contrasting histology of arteries and veins (See Martini’s 5th: p 693):

TISSUE LAYERS
tunica intima
ARTERY
endothelium (a simple squamous epithelium), attached to internal elastic lamina
VEIN
endothelium


TISSUE LAYERS
tunica media
ARTERY
smooth muscle, a thick band, attached to the external elastic lamina
VEIN
smooth muscle, a thin band


TISSUE LAYERS
tunica externa
ARTERY
adventitia with vasovasorum
VEIN
adventitia with vasovasorum


Here is a labeled view of an artery and a vein which contrasts their composition.

Artery_Vein_nerve_40x_P4043320crop

Arteries are thicker walled, have a smaller diameter, and hold themselves open. Veins are larger diameteres, thinner walled, and “floppier.”
You can also see adipose tissue and, in the upper right, two nerves.

Artery_100x_P4043316crop

This is a 100x view of an artery. Note again its open lumen and thick wall.

Artery_400x_P4043315crop

At 400x, the artery displays the internal elastic lamina, the thick tunica media, composed of smooth muscle, and the outermost adventitia or tunica externa. Red blood cells can be seen in the lumen.

vein_400x_P4043314crop

A 400x view of a vein shows little evidence of elasticity of the tunica intima, and a sparce amount of tunica media

Label the following in your illustrations of an artery and vein:
internal elastic lamina
tunica media
tunica adventitia
adipose tissue

VERNIER SCALE ADDRESS OF LEUKOCYTES

Fill in this table, and place in the slide box:
Vernier scale leukocyte addresses form:
Record slide set number, the addresses, your name and the date. Place in the slide box

Slide Set:______ Fore/Aft Lateral
neutrophil
basophil
eosinophil
lymphocyte
monocyte
Student: ______________________Date:________
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Histology of the Respiratory System

Histology of the Respiratory System

Examine the following slides and illustrate the views, labeling the specified features. The page numbers (VE) are in di Fiore’s Atlas of Normal Histology, 9th Ed:

trachea.40x.P9271918

Trachea, c.s., Slide 5 (H 2430), VE: p. 243, 40x
Layers:
1)  (pink)pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and lamina propria
2)  (bluish-purple) tracheal rings, composed of hyaline cartilage
3)  (pink) adjacent layers of perichondrium
4)  (bluish) another layer of hyaline cartilage
5)  (pink) adventitia:  connective tissue surrounding the trachea

trachea_400x_P4183379

Trachea, c.s., Slide 5 (H 2430), VE: p. 243, 400x
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
cilia
goblet cell
basement membrane
lamina propria
tracheal glands: secrete mucus
mucous alveoli: large pale blue-gray cytoplasm, nuclei at periphery ducts of tracheal glands (lined with simple cuboid)
perichondrium
hyaline cartilage
chondrocytes
Here is a labeled view of tracheal histology.

bronchus_40x_P4183372

bronchus: VE: p. 247, at 40x: This overview shows the bronchus embedded in a field of aveoli.

bronchus_100x_P4183373

bronchus: find one with noted features, VE: p. 247, at 100x: alveoli
bronchus or bronchiole: significance or characteristics:
mucosal folds pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
lamina propria connective tissue underlying mucous membrane
smooth muscle forms a smooth pink ring outside mucosa
adventitia often filled with lymphoid tissue
lymph node nuclei numerous, stained blue-purple
pulmonary artery thick walled
pulmonary vein thin walled, collapsed, if present
Here is a labeled view of a bronchus.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

bronchus:  VE: p. 247, at 400x:
mucosal folds are clear
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is more distinct
lamina propria connective tissue underlying mucous membrane
smooth muscle forms a smooth pink ring outside mucosa

alveoli_400x_P4183376

Lung, l.s., Slide 4 (H 2460), page 245 & 247:
at edge of lung: at 400x

visceral pleura mesothelium covering the surface of the lung
alveoli
blood vessel (hard to spot, incorporated into alveolar wall, look for RBCs.)
respiratory bronchiole, if present (lined with cuboid epithelium)
Here are some images of lung pathologies (all about 100x):
Emphysema
Pneumonia
Tuberculosis

Addtional images with other magnifications of the specimens.

alveoli_700x_P4183377

Lung, l.s., Slide 4 (H 2460), page 245 & 247:
at edge of lung: at 600x

Look carefully and you can see erythrocytes in the lower right of the alveolus.
Here is a labeled view of the edge of the lung.