Anatomy of Reproductive System in the Cat

Anatomy of Reproductive System in the Cat

Locate each of the following features (sex appropriate) in your cat, note the role of each in the reproductive process, and make a quick illustration showing the spatial relationships between them and other major landmarks in the abdominal cavity and groin.

After you have found the features appropriate to the sex of your cat, show them to a second pair of students who have the opposite sex cat, and have them do the same for you. (You show them yours, they show you theirs…)

Three illustrations:
1) female anatomy
2) male anatomy
3) dissected scrotum, at the bottom of the male’s page.

See Gilbert’s  Pictorial Anatomy of the Cat, pp: 52-59.

I. FEMALE: (pp. 54 & 55)
Here are the features you should identify in the following pictures

ovarian arteries, R & L
ovarian veins, R & L (carefully note origin of L vein)
fimbriae (surround ovary like catcher’s mitt)
abdominal ostium (opening to Fallopian tubes)
Fallopian tube (circle behind ovary to uterine horn, very short)
uterine horns (cats have two horns)
ovarian ligament (ties ovary to uterine horn)
broad ligament (ties uterine horn to abdominal wall, formed by folding of the peritoneum)
round ligament (imbedded in a fold of the broad ligament)
body of uterus (where two uterine horns join, behind bladder)

Here is a labeled version of the first image.

left ovary, vessels and uterine horn, first with peritoneum, then peritoneum removed.


Undissected left female reproductive tract. Note the tract is retroperitoneal.
Here is a labeled version of the image.


Right ovary with fimbria pulled back, vessels and uterine horn. Ovaries in the cat are the size and shape of pine nuts.
Here is a labeled image of the left ovary with the fimbria pulled back.


First image shows the left tract
Here is a labeled image of the ligaments of the female reproductive tract.
The second image shows the right tract.


the probe has been inserted under the fimbria of the R side


ovarian ligament, indicate with the needle, ties ovary to fallopian tube


broad ligament with probe underneath, ovary at extreme right of image


the osteum leadds from inside the fibria into the fallopian tube. Ovary at extreme right.


uterine body, bladder pulled down

Images of two cats which were pregnant.

II. MALE: (pp. 52,53 & 56) Here is an illustration of the overview of the male reproductive tract.


kidney & renal veins
testicular arteries R & L
testicular veins R & L (carefully note L vein)
vas deferens (also called ductus deferens)
Here is a labeled version of the image.

The right inguinal canal receives the right testicular artery and vein and the right vas deferens.
Here is a labeled version of the image.


vas deferens (also called ductus deferens)
(loops over ureter at the bladder)
bladder and ureters (Show vas looping over)
Here is a labeled version of the image.


inguinal canal (receives arteries, veins and vas deferens)
[Not a very clear image…]


spermatic cord (all the above wrapped in peritoneum, anterior to pubis)


Both spermatic cords can be seen in this image. The left spermatic cord descend to the left testis.
Here is a labeled version of the image.


Shallowly snip open the tip of the scrotum. Snip skin towards body to free tunica vaginalis-encased testis.
(Gilbert, p. 58)


Pull down on testis, cut spermatic cord high up.

Slip tip of scissors into sleeve, snip to “peel” tunica vaginalis from contents:
tunica vaginalis


The testis has been revealed by cutting and peeling back the parietal tunica vaginalis
epididymis and testis
vas deferens
Here is a labeled view of the medial and lateral views of the scrotal contents.
Here is a diagram of the features of a disected testis.

Other Images:


Digestive System Histology

Digestive System Histology

Examine the following slides, illustrate and label the indicated features: (See diFiore’s Atlas, 9th Ed, referenced below as VE.)


Stomach, combination, H2890. VE: p. 187, 193. 100x:
examine cells from the body region of the stomach (here is stomach at 40x ) simple mucous columnar epithelium
gastric pits
parietal cells (synthesize HCl, along wall )
chief cells (synthesize pepsinogen, deep)
lamina propria
muscularis mucosa
Here is a labeled view of the gastric mucosa.


Slide:  Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, H 3008
(These next three are on the same slide and should be drawn on a single page to contrast their distinguishing features. The distinguishing features are italicized in the following lists of features)
Here is a collage showing the duodenum, jejunum and ileum with diagnostic features noted.

duodenum, 40x

duodenum: VE: p. 201, 40x
[intestinal villus] (May not be apparent)
simple columnar (striated border = microvilli)
goblet cells
intestinal glands (Crypts of Lieberkühn)
duodenal glands (Brunner’s, deeper, make mucus)
muscularis externa
Here is a labeled view of the duodenum.


jejunum: VE: p. 203. 40x:
submucosa (no Brunner’s or Peyer’s)
intestinal glands
muscularis externa


ileum, VE: p. 205, 40x:
Peyer’s patches (lymphatic tissue in submucosa)
intestinal glands
muscularis externa
Here is a labeled view of the ileum .

colon, 40x

Large intestine, c.s., H 3010 VE: pp 207 & 209, 100x
mucosa (flat luminal surface)
goblet cells
lymph nodes (if present)
muscularis externa
Here is a labeled view of the colon .


Liver overview, h.&e., 98-9600  VE: p. 221, 40x
liver lobule surrounded by several triads
central vein (here is a close up of a central vein .)
hepatic triad
Here is a labeled 100x view of a liver lobule.
Here is a labeled 400x view of the central vein, sinusoids, hepatocytes and Kupfer cells.


Liver detail, VE: p. 223, 100 or 400x:  Here is a good view of a liver lobule, 100x.
hepatic triad:
bile duct (Simple cuboid epithelium
hepatic artery
hepatic portal vein
plates of hepatocytes (columns)
Also possess Kupfer cells (Part of reticuloendothelial system)
central vein
Here is a labeled view of a hepatic triad.


Anatomy of the Digestive System

Anatomy of the Digestive System


In the cat, identify the following organs and features. The page numbers refer to Gilbert’s Pictorial Anatomy of the Cat.

Make three illustrations:
1)  Head, esophagus and stomach (dissected open to show rugae)
2)  Liver and its features
3)  Stomach through the rectum



salivary glands: (pp 20-21, 38)
parotid & duct around and below the ear
submaxillary below parotid, under posterior facial vein
Here is a labeled view showing the parotid and submaxillary glands.


esophagus in cervical, thoracic and diaphragm region

stomach (pp. 43-45, 49)
lesser and greater curvatures
fundus uppermost rounded portion
lesser omentum connects to liver
left gastric artery branches fr celiac art.
greater omentum hangs below
cardiac orifice entry into stomach
pyloric sphincter exit from stomach
Here is a labeled image of the stomach.

cut along the greater curvature to open stomach and see:
rugae inside stomach
contents What did it last eat?
Any parasites?



liver : (pp. 42-46)
coronary ligament superior edge
gall bladder shriveled between lobes
common bile duct lies behind duodenum
(Note that the duodenum is green where the bile duct empties into it.)


liver : (pp. 42-46)
falciform ligament anterior edge
round ligament anterior edge of falc. lig
coronary ligament superior edge
Here is a labeled image of the liver and its ligaments.



stomach (outline)
pyloric sphincter
duodenum first few cm after stomach
pancreas (p. 50) lies in curve of duodenum
pancreatic duct joins bile duct at duodenum


cut open the duodenum to see the villi

mesenteries : (p. 49)
superior mesenteric artery
vessels of the hepatic portal system (yellow)
hepatic portal vein (large & yellow)

ileum  (terminal part of sm intestine)
lymph nodes
ileocecal valve
cecum (p. 49)  (blind proximal end of colon below ileocecal valve)
Here is a labeled image of the junction of the ileum and the colon.
Herre is a labeled image of the lower GI tract of the cat

jejunum (after duodenum)
make a 2″ longitudinal cut, note:
villi like velvet
(see any parasites? probably Ascaris)

ascending colon (indistinct in cat)

transverse colon (indistinct in cat)

descending colon (indistinct in cat)

sigmoid colon (indistinct in cat)

rectum  (straight terminal portion of colon