Cat Muscles of the Lower Appendages

Cat Muscles of the Lower Appendages

See also Martini’s Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 5th, pp 246-355.

Be sure to remove all fascia from surface of muscles to see the muscle edges clearly. Page numbers refer to the page number of appropriate illustrations in Gilbert’s Pictorial Anatomy of the Cat. See previous handouts for techniques and preparation of the cat to this point.

Here is a directory of pictures of a model of muscles of the thigh, leg and foot.
Some are labeled: anterior thigh , anterior thigh deep, medial thigh, posterior thigh, posterior thigh deep, anterior leg, lateral posterior leg, (more to come)

This dissection is divided into muscles of the
MEDIAL THIGH Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the medial thigh.
LATERAL THIGH Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the lateral thigh.
LATERAL LEG Here is a labeled view of the anterior muscles of the leg and foot
Here is a directory of images taken 2009. Here is a selection which have been labeled:
gracilis and sartorious
tensor fascia lata
medial leg, deep
biceps femoris, cutting and reflecting
gluteal muscles

MEDIAL THIGH: Gilbert, pages 32, 34 and 35

origin: anterior superior iliac spine
insertion: tibial medial epicondyle
cut and reflect

origin: pubis
insertion: medial surface of tibia (by an aponeurosis)
It is wide and thin, runs down inside of thigh.
cut and reflect

tensor fascia lata
fascia lata (iliotibial tract)
origin: iliac crest
insertion: into the fascia lata
Locate where thigh joins abdomen, follow to connective tissue band: fascia lata (an aponeurosis on lateral side of thigh)
cut and reflect

origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: medial side of the tibia, below the epicondyle
It is a round, thin muscle whose tendon inserts in medial side of tibia below the semimembranosus.

origin: ischium
insertion: medial epicondyle of tibia
It is a thick muscle, much larger and more anterior than the semitendinosus in the cat.

adductor femoris (adductor magnus)
adductor longus
both adductor femoris and adductor longus:
origin: pubis
insertions: medial femur
Adductor femoris is large, adjacent to semimembranosus (called adductor magnus in humans)
Adductor longus is small, adjacent to and above adductor femoris
Here are the adductor muscles (etc) labeled.

origin: lumbar vertebrae and medial ilium
insertion: lesser trochanter.
It is superior and lateral to femoral vessels (which emerge thru the abdominal wall) (Look in rear of abdomen of previously dissected cat for best view.)
Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the medial thigh.

LATERAL THIGH: Gilbert, pages 31 and 33

08_biceps_femoris_reflected_Pb292419mdbiceps femoris (already cut and reflected)
sciatic nerve (white cord in picture)
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: lateral tibia (and patella and leg fascia)
It is the large lateral hamstring
cut and reflect (Don’t cut sciatic nerve)
09_gluteus_maximus_Pb292420mdgluteus maximus
origin: transverse processes of sacral & caudal vertebrae
insertion: greater trochanter
small in cat, inserts into femur and fascia lata
Here are the muscles of the lateral thigh labeled.


gluteus medius
origin: ilium near the crest
insertion: greater trochanter
larger than maximus in cat, superior to maximus

quadriceps femoris , including: vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris vastus intermedius
origin: all originate on femur except rectus femoris
rectus femoris origin: ilium
rectus femoris is a round, “hotdog in bun” common insertion: patella

patella_&_ligament_PC031350palettal and palettal ligament feel it by wiggling side to side directly over the knee below patella, connects to tibial tuberosity

LATERAL LEG: Gilbert, pages 31 and 33


Gastrocnemius soleus Achilles tendon
origin: lateral and medial heads of tibia
insertion: calcaneous via the achilles tendon
calf muscle, superficial to next muscle
directly under the gastrocnemius
tendon of insertion for next two muscles into calcaneus

12_tibialis_anterior_Pb292423mdtibialis anterior
origin: proximal ends of tibia and fibula
insertion: first metatarsal
anterior-most muscle of the lateral compartment, lies along tibia. Its tendon of insertion passes in front of the tibia to the medial side of the foot.

extensor digitorum longus
origin: lateral epicondyle of tibia
insertion: middle and distal phalanges 2-5
four-part insertions cross top of foot
extends four toes simultaneously lies under the tibialis anterior next to the tibia.
Tendon of insertion passes under the transverse ligament, splits into four parts.
(Do not confuse its tendon with that of tibialis anterior which angles down in the lower picture)
Here is a labeled view of the anterior muscles of the leg and foot

13_peroneus_longus_Pb292424mdperoneus longus tendon origin: proximal fibula
insertion: bases of metatarsals
passes lateral to lateral malleolus, passes under foot to 1st metatrsl


transverse ligaments retinacula which hold down tendons of insertion

MEDIAL LEG: Gilbert, pages 32, 34 and 35


tibialis anterior tendon
origin: proximal tibia and fibula
insertion: first metatarsal
inserts medial side of first metatarsal (inverts foot)

flexor digitorum longus
origin: behind tibia, below semitendinosus.
insertion: bases of terminal phalanges 2-5
Its tendon lies just behind the tibial malleolus (pull tendon, all toes flex)