I was privileged to stay with the Samara family in Bil’im, a village in occupied West Bank of Palestine. It is a village surrounded by olive orchards, vineyards, family gardens, and grazing lands on which goats and sheep are grazed. I was fortunate to be able to see Mr. Samara’s daughter-in-law prepare Haloumi, a Palestinian White Cheese almost always served with breakfast.
If you need a primer course on how to make cheese, see in information in the “Related” section below.
- 1 gallon milk
- 1/4 cup fresh active yogurt
- 1/2 tablet rennet
- 2 oz. Kosher salt
- 1.5 gallon stainless steel pot, thick bottom
- Large white handkerchief, boiled
- 3 quart plastic tub with lid
6) Cover again, let the curds sit to firm up for 10 min.
Khyar bi laban is a wonderfully delicious, refreshing, cold “soup” which I LOVE in the summer. The Arabs have really discovered something here. It is so simple, pure, fresh, nutritious, and did I mention, delicious. Make it in five minutes, and enjoy it for time immemorial… “Yallah.” (“Let’s go!” in Arabic)
In the 1870s, Walther Flemming noted that during cell division, thread-like features were distributed to each of the new daughter cells. He termed this process “mitosis,” or the process of the threads. Waldeyer named these threads “chromosomes” in 1888. We now know that the purpose of mitosis is to distribute genetically identical copies of genetic material to each of the two daughter cells.
We can see the stages of mitosis in rapidly dividing tissues (high mitotic rate) such as in the root tips of growing seeds or bulbs. Plant tissues capable of mitosis are termed meristematic tissues, found as lateral meristem by which the stem widens and apical meristem, by which the stems lengthen. We can see mitosis in action in root tips of sprouting onion (Allium sp.) Because they are particularly large, and the mitotic rate is high. We will use onion root tips as a classic example of mitosis in general, and in plants in particular.
Mitosis in animals has certain important differences from that of plants, as will be demonstrated by studying this process in Ascaris, a genus of nematode to which the common intestinal round worm belongs.
Make five drawings for each species, one in interphase, and four for each of the stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. As you make your drawings, pay particular attention to the differences as well as the similarities between animals and plants.
Meiosis is an entirely different form of cell division used to reduce the number of sets of chromosomes during gametogenesis. We will study meiosis in the monkey testis.
Mitosis in Plants: Onion Root Tips
The images of onion root tip mitotic figures were taken of specimens prepared in our lab according to our protocol Chromosomes in Root Tips.
Microtubules assemble, forming the spindle. Centromers attach the chromosome to the spindle which maneuvers the chromosomes to the center of the cell. The spindle is visible in these images.
Centromeres split, and the kinetochore component of the centromere pulls the chromosome along the microtubule towards the end of the cell. this is by far the shortest phase, and anaphase figures are therefore less common in these preparations.
Chromosomes have reached the ends of the cell and appear tightly contracted. The spindle will dissolve, nuclear membrane reform, and cytokinesis will divide the cell into two genetically identical daughter cells.
Mitosis in Animals: Ascaris
Meiosis in Animals: Monkey Testis
Here is a page on the histology of mammalian gonads. Note especially the testis and the labeled cells engaged in meiosis.
Meiosis in the testis does not begin until after the spermatogonia, which is attached to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule undergoes mitosis. One daughter cell remains attached to the basement membrane, the other is pushed away and becomes a primary spermatocyte. The primary spermatocyte, released from the inhibition of the basement membrane, begins meiosis. Chromosomes may be visible, and the content of the nucleus is the same as the spermatogonia. After completing meiosis I, two secondary spermatocytes result, each with half the DNA as the primary spermatocyte. These two cells undergo meiotic division two producing four haploid spermatids. These are easily recognized because their nuclei are small, round and dense. Spermatids undergo further differentiation in which spermatozoa are formed: lysosome condensed into an acrosome, mitochondria migrate to form the tail sheath, a flagellum grows, the cytoplasm is reduced, and the nucleus becomes tightly compacted.
Meiosis in Plants: Lillium
Meiosis I prophase and metaphase
Meiosis I metaphase and anaphase
Meiosis II telophase; pollen is nearly formed
Review of Labeled Images from A&P 201
Here is a chronological set of all labeled images used in Anatomy and Physiology 201 Lab during Fall Quarter 2008. Let me know if there are any problems with the links. Here are the original illustrated lab protocols for A&P 201.
labeled view of simple squamous epithelium.
labeled view of simple cuboid epithelium.
labeled view of simple columnar epithelium.
labeled view of stratified squamous epithelium.
labeled view of pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
labeled view of loose areolar connective tissue.
labeled view of bone.
labeled view of atlas and axis with spinous process at top
labeled view of a thoracic vertebra
labeled side view of thoracic vertebrae showing demifacets and intervertebral foramina
labeled view of the sacrum
labeled image of the posterior scapula
labled view of the right ulna and radius
labeled view of supination and pronation
labeled view of the bones of the hand
labeled lateral view of the right os coxa
labeled view of male versus female pelvices
labeled view of the female pelvis.
labeled view of the male pelvis.
labeled view of the bones of the right foot
Here is a labeled version of the shoulder
Here is a labeled version of the elbow
labeled view of the proximal tibial features of the knee joint from a deer.
Here is a labeled version, extended
Here is a labeled version flexed
the dissected hip joint labeled.
labeled 450x view of skeletal muscle
labeled image of cardiac muscle stained with H&E
labeled image of cardiac muscle stained with Iron H&E (showing intercalated discs) . .
MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK AND UPPER APPENDAGE
image with the chest muscles labeled
Here is a labeled view of the ventral surface of the upper appendage
labeled version of the deep muscles of the chest and scapula
labeled view of the deep muscles of the back and scapula
labeled view of the deep muscles of the back and scapula
MUSCLES OF THE LOWER APPENDAGE
MEDIAL THIGH Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the medial thigh.
adductor muscles (etc) labeled.
LATERAL THIGH Here is a labeled view of the muscles of the lateral thigh.
LATERAL LEG Here is a labeled view of the anterior muscles of the leg and foot