Bones and Features of the Skull

Bones and Features of the Skull

See Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology , Martini, 9th Ed, pp. 200-216 and The Anatomy Coloring Book, Kapit and Elson 3rd, pp. 24-26.

Illustrate two views of the skull:

  1. The floor of the cranium. (Martini’s 9th, p. 203). (Note the eight bones which form the floor: frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, two temporals, two parietals and the occipital)
  2. The right-front side (3/4 view)

Label all bones with their listed features. Use the illustrations in Martini to aid in locating the bones and their features.

Here is an index page to many skull bone pictures not included on this page.
Here are overall views of the skull:


Front view

skull_front_PB012149

Skull Front labeled


Floor of Cranium

cranial_floor_PB012150up

Cranial Floor Labeled


Floor of cranium close up

cranial_floor_close_PB012151adj
Floor of cranium close up

Base of Skull

skull_from_belowPB012152up


Orbits and Nasal Cavity

orbits_nasal_cav_PA230100


Side View of Skull

skull_R_PA230105


Skull Right Quarter View

skull_quarter_view_PA230104

Skull Quarter View Labeled


Labeled Inferior View

Skull_inferior_lbd


Disarticulated Bones of the Skull

Craniel Bones


frontal_front_PA281025

Frontal (Contributes to orbit)

supraorbital foramen
glabella
supraorbital (superciliary) ridge
Sutures in the calvarium
coronal
sagittal


sphenoid_top_PA281039
SPHENOID (Contributes to orbit)

greater wings
lesser wings
optic foramina
superior orbital fissure (CN III, IV, V 1, VI)


ethmoid_PA281050

ETHMOID (Contributes to orbit) middle nasal concha

Here are alternative views of the ethmoid:
inferior view
superior view
Here is a (spooky) view up the nose showing the perpendicular plate, the cribriform plate and the middle nasal concha.


FACIAL BONES:

temporal_R_lateral_PA281027
TEMPORAL

squamous portion:
zygomatic process


zygomatic_PA281034
ZYGOMATIC (Contributes to orbit)


orbit_close_PA281067

Lacrimal (Contributes to orbit)


palatine_PA281052
Palatine (Contributes to orbit)

orbital surface


maxilla_R_lateral_PA281037
Maxilla (Contributes to orbit)

frontal process (to frontal bone)
zygomatic process
infraorbital foramen
alveolar margin
maxillary sinus
anterior nasal spine


mandible_lateral_PA281031

MANDIBLE

mandibular angle
mandibular notch
coronoid process
mandibular condyle
alveolar margin
mandibular foramen
mental foramen


vomer_PA281054
Vomer

 


inferior_conchae_PA281059
Inferior Nasal Conchae

Also known as the turbinate
This view is into the nasal cavity, the two lateral curved bones are the inferior nasal conchae.


nasal_PA281056
Nasal


Disarticulated Bones of the Cranial Floor

frontal_insidePA281026
Frontal


parietal_inside_PA281044

Parietal

venous sinuses


temporal_L_medial_PA281048

Temporal

squamous portion
petrous portion
internal acoustic meatus (CN VIII)
carotid canal
Jugular foramen (CN IX, X, XI)
(between temporal & occipital)


ethmoid_PA281049
Ethmoid

crista galli (attaches to dura mater)
cribriform plate (CN I)


sphenoid_top_PA281043
Sphenoid

sella turcica
greater wings
lesser wings
optic foramina (CN II)
foramen rotundum (anterior, CN V 2 )
foramen ovale (lateral, CN V3 )


occipital_PA281029
Occipital

foramen magnum
basioccipital
hypoglossal canal (CN XII)

Disarticulated Bones of the Skull

Disarticulated Bones of the Skull

On this page is a variety of images of disarticulated bones of the skull and a few images of associations of articulated bones of the skull.

Skull

 


Calvarium with sutures

calvarium_sutures_PA281058
calvarium with sutures

Floor of cranium

 


Ethmoid


Occipital


Frontal


Lacrimal

lacrimal_PA281057


Mandible


Maxilla


Nasal cavity


Nasal bones

nasal_PA281056


Orbits


Ossicles

ossicles&dime


Palatine


Parietal


Sphenoid


Temporal


Temporomandibular joint


Vomer


Zygomatic

Features of Bones

Feature of Bones

Descriptions and Examples, Head to Toe

Martini’s 8th: p 187

The following terms will be used to describe and name features of bones which you are about to learn. Familiarize yourself with the list first, then learn the terms as you learn the bones of the body and the names and function of their features. I have listed example features starting with the skull and working down to the femur.

Meatus  canal-like passage way
temporal_L_lateral_PA281046
temporal bone: ext auditory meatus


Process a projection from a bone

temporal_R_lateral_PA281027
temporal bone: zygomatic process


Fissure narrow slit-like opening

orbit_L_PB060030
orbit: superior & inferior fissures


Sinus cavity within a bone, air & mucousmembranefacial sinuses

ethmoid_PA281050
ethmoid

frontal and maxillary sinuses ethmoid sinuses


Foramen round opening through bone

foramen_magnum_PA281069
View of Floor of Cranium

foramen magnum


Ramus arm-like extension of bone

mandible_lateral_PA281031
mandibular ramus


Condyle rounded knuckle like articular surface

mandibular condyle, femur: distal


Fossa shallow depression, often articular

temporal_R_lateral_PA281027
temporal: mandibular fossa


Tubercle small rounded projection

humerus_ant&post_PB012145-46

humerus: greater & lesser


Groove furrow

humerus_ant&post_PB012145-46
humerus: intertubercular groove


Head rounded expansion, carried on neck

humerus_ant&post_PB012145-46
humerus: proximal end


Tuberosity large rounded projection

humerus_ant_post_PB060014
humerus: deltoid tuberosity


Epicondyle elevated area on or above condyle

humerus_ant_post_PB060014
humerus: lateral & medial


Facet smooth, nearly flat articular surface

thoracic_colmn_PB060006
vertebral facets


Crest prominent narrow ridge

os_coxa_lat_PB060022_lbd
os coxa: iliac crest


Spine sharp, slender pointed projection

os coxa: anterior sup. iliac spines


Trochanter large, blunt process

PB121172
femur: proximal end


Line narrow low ridge

femur_ant_&_post
femur: linea aspera

Features of Selected Bones

 

Features of Selected Bones

Illustrate these disarticulated bones and include the listed features with labels (handle with care and respect please, they are real & fragile).
Enter in your book on pages in this order:

First set of pages:
Facing pages (illustrations 1 and 2):
1) cervical and thoracic vertebra
2) lumbar vertebra and articulated atlas and axis
3) sacrum
4) scapula

Second set of pages
Facing pages (illustrations 5 and 6):
5) humerus front and back
6) radius and ulna
7) hand and wrist
8) os coxa
9) ankle and foot

Articulated C-1 and C-2 :labeled drawing of vertebra( top rear view of the articulated bones) (one picture)
atlas: no centrum, articular surface for odontoid process, no spinous process
axis: odontoid process (dens) (Martini’s 5th: p 215)
Here is a labeled view of articulated C-1 and C-2.

Here is a labeled view of atlas and axis with spinous process at top.


 


Cervical : most delicate of the vertebrae (Martini’s 5h: p 215-218)
Unique cervical features: transverse foramina, bifurcated spinous process


Thoracic : label features common to all vertebrae:
centrum, neural arch, vertebral foramen, pedicle, spinous process, lamina, superior articular processes, transverse process, Draw small side view of a thoracic vertebra showing the demifacets and the vertebral notches which form intervertebral foramina for spinal nerves. Unique thoracic features:demifacets for articulation with rib head, seen from side (except for 11th and 12th.), articular facets on transverse processes (for rib tubercle) and long delicate spinous processes

Here is a labeled view of a thoracic vertebra.
Here is a labeled side view of articulated thoracic vertebrae.
Here is a labeled picture of the articulation of ribs with vetebra.


Lumbar : heavy centra, broad heavy spinous process, transverse process lacks facets


Sacrum:(posterior view): dorsal sacral foramina, superior articular facet, auricular surface (on sides, for os coxa), (ala), median sacral crest, sacral canal, sacral hiatus.
Here is a labeled view of the sacrum.



Scapula : (posterior view): labeled drawing scapulaacromion process, coracoid process, spine of the scapula, supraspinous fossa, infraspinous fossa, glenoid fossa, vertebral border, axillary border
Here is a labeled image of the posterior scapula.


23.4. Bones of the arm: (two pages: two views of humerus on first,
ulna and radius on facing page)

humerus_ant&post_PB012145-46
Humerus: (anterior and posterior views): head, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, intertubercular groove, deltoid tuberosity, lateral epicondyle, medial epicondyle, trochlea, coronoid fossa, capitulum, olecranon fossa


 


Ulna : (lateral view) olecranon process, trochlear notch (semilunar notch), coronoid process, head, styloid process, radial notch
Radius : head, neck, radial tuberosity, styloid process, ulnar notch

Here is a labled view of the right ulna and radius.
(Here it is in vertical orientation.)
Here is a labeled view of supination and pronation.


Articulated bones of the wrist and hand, labeled drawing, wrist and handventral view (trace around your hand as a model):
include distal ulna and radius
proximal row of carpals: scaphoid lunate triquetrum pisiform
distal row of carpals: trapezium trapezoid capitate hamate
first through fifth metacarpals, proximal, middle and distal phalanges.

Here is a labeled view of the bones of the hand.
Here is another labeled view of the right forearm before and after pronation.


femur_chicken_collage_numbered_sm
Here is a collage of chicken femur pictures for you to label.



Os coxa, lateral view with acetabulum and obturator foramen: labeled drawing, os coxa (Note differences between male and female .)
a: ilium: iliac crest, anterior superior iliac spine, anterior inferior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, posterior inferior iliac spine, greater sciatic notch
b: pubic bone: pubic tubercle, inferior ramus
c: ischium: ischial spine, ischial tuberosity, ischial ramus

Here is a labeled lateral view of the right os coxa.
Here is a labeled view of male versus female pelvices.
Here is a labeled view of the female pelvis.
Here is a labeled view of the male pelvis.


 


Articulated bones of the ankle to metatarsals , top view:labeled drawing, ankle and foot
talus, calcaneus, navicular, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, cuboid, first through fifth metatarsals
Here is a labeled view of the bones of the right foot.


tarsals_superior_PB060027
Detail, superior view tarsals:


VERTEBRA (on facing pages: two pictures on each page, same scale, superior views for all)