Anatomy & Physiology 2002 Lecture Notes, Directory

These are lecture notes listed in sequence:












































Histology of Reproductive Organs

Examine these slide at low power first to find the field which best demonstrates the listed features. Label the indicated features, and briefly describe their functions.

Male Histology

1. Testis, monkey, 400x, Slide 12 (H 9700) VE’s 9th: pp. 285 & 287

Diagram of Spermatogenesis:

Diagram of spermatogenesis.

2. Penis, c.s. monkey, 40x, Slide 13, (H 9712), VE’s 9th: p. 297

Female Histology

3. Ovary, monkey, 100x, Slide 14 (H 9800); VE’s 9th: pp. 303 & 307

4. Ovary: Graafian follicle 100x, Slide 15 (H 3785); VE’s 9th: pp. 303 & 305

5. Corpus luteum (40x), Slide 16, (H 3815); VE’s 9th: pp. 309

6. Fallopian tube, c.s. 100x, Slide 18, (H 9802); VE’s 9th: p. 311

Bone Histology Lab

Bone Histology Lab

See Eroschenko’s 9th, pp 47-61

Bone is a remarkable connective tissue derived from hyaline cartilage whose matrix, under the influence of calciferol, has been hardened by the deposition calcium and phosphate to form hydroxyapatite ([Ca3 (PO4)2]·Ca(OH)2) as the ground substance. Collagen remains the primary fiber in the matrix as it is in hyaline cartilage. Special arrangements are made for supplying blood to this living tissue.

The major supply comes from a vessel housed in the central canal, and cross linkage between central canals are provided by Volkmann’s canals. The matrix is maintained by osteocytes, the characteristic cells of bone. Histologically, bone is composed of units termed Haversian systems or osteons in which concentric rings of osteocytes are arranged around a central blood vessel.

Make two illustrations, one an overview of a Haversian system (100x), the second a detailed view of an osteocyte (400x).

Use slide 14: Bone, ground (c.s.) (Because bone cannot be sectioned with a microtome, wafer thin pieces are prepared by grinding down bone.)


Bone, ground
Overview of a Haversian system : (100x) VE:fig 3-17 & 3-19, p 60-61

Haversian system  (osteon) entire complex, functional unit of bone
Haversian canal  carries blood vessel through center of osteon
lamellae “little layer” of matrix between concentric rings of osteocytes
lacunae “pools” which house osteocytes
osteocytes “bone cells” which maintain bone
Volkmann’s canal feeder cross connecting vessel for blood supply
canaliculi protoplasmic extensions from osteocytes by which maintenance of bone is performed
interstitial lamellae layers between adjacent Haversian systems

Here is  a labeled version


 An Osteocyte
An Osteocyte: (400x) VE:fig 3-19, p 61

a smaller illustration showing:
a single enlarged osteocyte
lacuna chamber in which the osteocyte is held
canaliculi “little channels” containing protoplasmic extensions from osteocytes.

Histology of a Leaf Cross Section

Histology of a Leaf Cross Section

This lab is designed to be used as a means of reviewing the use of the binocular microscope.

Slide: Sun Leaf Pear, B 669a

Scan the entire leaf section using the 4x objective , note major visible features, especially vascular tissue bundles and leaf tissue structure. Find a well-defined vascular bundle (not the central vein), then rotate the 10x objective into place. Finally, examine the vascular bundle with the 40x objective. Note the various classes of cells which you can distinguish. Illustrate the 400x view containing the following labeled features which should be familiar to you from first year biology:
epidermis: epidermal cells, cuticle, stoma, guard cells
mesophyll: palisade parenchyma, spongy parenchyma, intercellular space
vascular tissues: vascular bundle, bundle sheath, xylem (large, few) and phloem (small and numerous


Cross section of pear leaf at the central vein, 40x


Cross section of pear leaf central vein, 100x


Vascular bundle, showing xylem (larger red cells) and phloem (indistinct small greenish cells) wrapped in bundle sheath.


Smaller vascular bundle with pallisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma clearly shown.
Here is a labeled version of the image of the histology of the leaf.


guard cells guarding stoma at center bottom.


guard cells guarding stoma at center bottom.
Here is a labeled version of guard cells and tissues.


guard cells guarding stoma at center bottom

Muscle Histology Lab

Muscle Histology Lab

Skeletal muscle 400x (labeled)
See Martini’s, 6th, pp 320-327, Eroschenko’s 9th , pp 75-83.

Muscle is a contractile tissue which generates tension through the molecular pull exerted on actin by myosin fibers in the sarcomere (review these terms in your text). There are three histological classes of muscle, each of which functions in a unique way. Evidence of repeating sarcomere units can be seen in the cross striations of striated and cardiac muscle. The dark “A bands” are arrays of myosin. The light “I bands” are the spaces in between where there is no myosin. Look closely at a longitudinal section of skeletal muscle to see these bands.

I. Smooth muscle cells are tapered at the ends and possess a single centrally located nucleus. Their sarcomeres are not arranged in an orderly repeating fashion, and therefore the cells lack visible striations. These cells are slow contracting, and are responsible for involuntary visceral contractions (peristalsis, uterine contractions, bladder contraction, “bristling” of skin hairs, vasoconstriction, etc).

II. Striated muscle consists of multinucleated fibers produced by the fusion of many individual cells to form a muscle “fiber”. The nuclei and mitochondria are pushed to the outside of the fiber. It owes its striations to regular, repeated arrangement of sarcomeres. It is voluntary, rapid acting, and relatively easily fatigued. It is also known as skeletal muscle, and is responsible for movement of bones.

III. Cardiac muscle, also termed “striated involuntary muscle,” is found only in the heart. Its cells usually contain a single centrally located nucleus, display striations as in striated muscle, but, due to branching interconnections, appear woven together under the microscope. In contrast to striated muscle fibers, their nuclei are centrally located in the fibers. The interconnections between fibers, intercalations, are diagnostic of cardiac muscle but visible only when stained with with iron-containing stains. It is capable of intrinsically initiated rhythmic contraction.

Draw each slide at 400x:


(slide 16) Smooth Muscle.
VE: fig 5-2, p 77
(Draw three or four of these teased out individual smooth muscle cells. These are hard to see, so carefully follow microscope protocol (focus first on the edge of the cover slip).
Features to identify
nuclei located half way between ends of the cells
smooth muscle fibers “spindle” shaped (tapered at each end)


Skeletal muscle 100x
Skeletal muscle 400x
Skeletal muscle 1000X

(slide 17) Striated Muscle,
VE: fig 5-3, p 79 and 5-9, p 85
This specimen is from the tongue which is particularly good to show traits of skeletal muscle because it has fibers running at right angles to each other, allowing a longitudinal as well as a cross sections in a single view.
Here is a labeled 450x view of skeletal muscle .
Features to identify
perimysium material binding muscle fascicles together (dark encircling material)
muscle fascicle bundle of muscle fibers: include them in both c. s. and l. s.
endomysium binds individual fibers into a muscle fascicle (lines between fibers)
muscle fiber formed from fused muscle cells, show in both c. s. and l. s.
nuclei of muscle fibers note that they are multiple and pushed to the edge of the fiber
capillaries in endomysium clearly defined round holes at junctions of fibers
A band dark band in the cross striations, corresponds to myosin fibers
I band light band, corresponds to space between ends of myosin

(slide 18) Cardiac Muscle ,
VE: fig 5-7 & 5-10, p 83 & 85
Two slides are shown. The two images are from cardiac muscle stained with hematoxylin-eosin. It shows centrally located nucleii, but not intercalated discs, one of the diagnostic features for cardiac muscle.
Here is a labeled image of cardiac muscle stained with H&E .

The bottom image is cardiac muscle which has been stained with an iron-containing stain which makes the intercalated discs stand out.
Here is a labeled image of cardiac muscle stained with Iron H&E (shows intercalated discs).
Here is another labeled image of cardiac muscle stained with Iron H&E (showing intercalated discs) .
Features to identify
nucleus of cardiac fiber is larger, and is located in central position in cardiac fiber
interwoven fibers characteristic of cardiac muscle
perinuclear sarcoplasm space around the nucleus lacking banding, not seen in striated muscle
intercalated discs join adjacent cardiac fibers end to end, only visible in iron-stained specimens

Urinary Tract Histology

Urinary Tract Histology

Examine these slide at low power first to find the field which best demonstrates the listed features. Label the indicated features, and briefly describe their functions. Make the following three illustrations showing  the histology of the urinary tract.

HISTOLOGY IN PREPARED SLIDES: Slide 10, Kidney, injected, (H 3490), VE’s 9th: pp 250-265


at 40x:
renal capsule (if present)
Bowman’s capsule
medullary rays
medulla Here is a labeled view of the 40x kidney.
Page in Eroshenko’s Histology Atlas (VE: p. 253)


glomerulus (and, if present:)
vascular pole (vessels lead in)
urinary pole (proximal tubule exits)
Bowman’s capsule
proximal convoluted tubules (small variable lumen, with brush borders)
distal convoluted tubules (fewer, larger lumen, without brush border)
Here is a labeled view of the 400x cortex .


Synthesizes renin in response to low blood volume or low blood pressure.
Renin then converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin.
Angiotensin stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone.
Aldosterone stimulates synthesis of Na?K pump in the ascending loop of Henle.
juxtaglomerular complex (rare to find: if present, at vascular pole)
Here is a labeled view of the juxtaglomerular complex .
And another labeled view of a juxtaglomerular complex .
and yet another labeled view of a juxtaglomerular complex!
Page in Eroshenko’s Histology Atlas (VE: pp. 255 & 257)


None of these have RBCs in them:
loop of Henle thin segment, descending (lined with squamous cells)
loop of Henle thick segment, ascending (lined with cuboid cells)
collecting tubule (with thicker cuboid cells)* (papillary duct = its terminal portion)
Here is a labeled view of the 400x medulla .
And another labeled view of the 400x medulla contrasting the descending and ascending arms of the loop of Henle. And another contrasting the collecting tubule with the arms of the loop of Henle .
*(better seen in H150, from fall quarter)
Page in Eroshenko’s Histology Atlas (VE: p. 259)

Here are additional images of renal histology.
The nephrons in the first have been injected with dye:


Renal corpuscles, 100 x:


Renal corpuscles, 400x:


Renal medulla, 400x:

Lymphatic System

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system collects and cleanses the fluid which seeps out of the capillary beds, bathing the tissue which it perfuses. This cleansing fluid, called lymph, is collected by afferent lymph vessels which carry it to a lymph node where it is filtered. There, macrophages consume bacteria and debris, and immune cells monitor the lymph for antigens which might react with their antibodies and stimulate them to multiply and make antibodies. The cleansed lymph leaves via an efferent lymph vessel.
In the abdomen, cleansed lymph from the intestines is collected in the cysterna chyli, and, except for the upper R quadrant of the body, is collected into the thoracic duct which empties into the circulatory system through the L subclavian vein. (The upper right quadrant drains by the R lymphatic duct  into the R subclavian vein.)

[Gilbert has no relevant illustrations.]

ANATOMY: Illustrate the highlighted features of the lymphatic system in the cat:


The hepatic portal system has been injected with yellow latex, showing the venous drainage from the intestines to the liver.
The lymphatic drainage follows the same pattern as the arterial (red) and venous drainage sytems (yellow in the case of the hepatic portal system). Examine the relationship of the mesenteries to the small intestine in the dissected cat.
[Thanks to Professor Brian W. Witz at the Nazareth College of Rochester for correcting identifications of some of the features of the lymphatic system on this page.]


Small afferent lymph vessels (difficult to see) lead to lymph nodes. Once filtered, lymph is carried by the efferent vessels which empty into the cisterna chyli, located behind the abdominal aorta.

As the cisterni chyli passes through the diaphragm, it becomes the thoracic duct. In the thorax, it may be seen as a thin brown tube to the left of the aorta, under the parietal pleura and the intercostal arteries.

Trace the throacic duct up until it passes behind the left subclavian vein into which it empties (next to the jugular vein).
Note also these lymph nodes:
the submandibular (and another view of both the R and L submandibular lymph nodes.)
the numerous lymph nodes associated with the ileocecal junction .

Examine and illustrate the following slide, labeling the specified features. Note the function of each feature. It is specially stained with silver and gold to show reticular fibers. The plate numbers are in the 9th Ed. of di Fiore’s Atlas of Normal Histology:

Slide 3. Lymph node, Reticular tissue, (H 550) VE: p. 125 & 127, 40x:


Here is a 40x view of a lymph node , and its medulla
[ Here is a labeled version.]

At 100x, one can see the subcapsular sinus more clearly and the medulary sinus is at the bottom of the image.


At 400 x, details of the capsule become clearer.
Note the space under the capsule, the subcapsular sinus , which contains the lymph within the node.

A close-up of a germinal center:
trabeculae form baffles which direct lymph over the germinal centers
germinal centers house immune cells, enlarge during infections
[Here is a labeled version of the image.]

medullary sinus chamber (s) in the center, collects filtered lymph
reticular fibers give structure to the gland, anchor macrophages, (best seen at 400x)
Here are additional images similar to the ones above, but with slightly different views.

Histology of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum

Histology of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum

Follow protocol Notebook Illustrations

Examine the following slides, identify the listed features. Survey each slide for the best typical field showing listed features, and illustrate it at the indicated power, labeling the listed features. At home, note the significance or function of each feature in a sentence or two.

Slide 2, Cerebral Cortex, cat, pyramidal neurons, Ag stain , (H 1490). (MF 9 th, page 105)
Cerebral Cortex, 40x:
arachnoid meninx (Note that this membrane ‘drapes’ across the sulcus, and has ‘spider-web’ like fibers connecting it to the pia mater.)
pia mater (this vascular tissue forms the surface of the organs of the brain, and descends down into and lines the sulci.
molecular layer (superficial most)
granular layer (just below molecular)
pyramidal cells (primary motor neurons which initiate conscious motor activity)
dendrites of pyramidal cells (collect information leading to initiation of a motor impulse.)
white matter
Here is a labeled version of the cortex with pyramidal cells .

Central Cerebral Cortex, 400x
Pyramidal cells
dendritic collaterals (collect impulses)
axon (a single axon emerges from the deep portion of the neuron, towards the white matter. Only seen in rare pyramidal cells because of the section being viewed.)
astrocyte (neuroglial cell)
Here is a labeled version of the cerebral cortex, 400x.

Slide 3, Cerebellum, cat, Purkinje Cells, Ag stain, (H 1510)  (MF 9 th, page 103,)

Cerebellum, 40x: Note that the structure is much more refined, the sulci deeper, and the gyri narrower. Here they are called folia.

pia mater
cortex (gray matter)
molecular layer (superficial most)
granular layer (just below molecular)
white matter
Here is a labeled version of the cerebellum, 100x.

Cerebellar cortex, 400x:
molecular layer:
outer stellate cells
parallel axons of granule cells (extending from granular layer)
Purkinje cell layer:
Purkinje Cells:
dendrite (multibranched)
axon (difficult to see)
axons of deep stellate cells (also called “basket cells”). They lie near but above Purkinje cells.
granular layer:
granule cells (very numerous)
axon of Purkinje cell
myelinated fibers of white matter (deep)

Penny Oliver, an artist, was inspired by this micrographic image of Purkinge Cells to create a painting of it.


Histology of the Organs of Smell and Taste

Histology of the Organs of Smell and Taste

Follow protocol Notebook Illustrations

Slide 12. Olfactory epithelium (H 1042), ( MF 9th, page 237, 249)

The olfactory mucosa is a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium located in the superior-most region of the nasal cavity, and contains bipolar olfactory cells whose cilia are embedded in mucus. Chemicals which dissolve in the mucus trigger responses in these cilia which initiate a nervous impulse, interpreted in the brain as an odor. Supporting cells surround the olfactory cells. Mucus-producing Bowman’s glands are embedded in the lamina propria. This connective tissue is richly vascularized. Some slides have portions of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone included.

Olfactory membrane, 40x

Olfactory membrane 100x

Here is a labeled view of the olfactory epithelium
Olfactory epithelium and underlying lamina propria, 100x:
olfactory epithelium: 
olfactory cells (with deep nuclei)
supportive cells (with superficial nuclei)
surface mucus
(looks like a line above surface)
lamina propria:
glands of Bowman (serous)
ducts of these glands
[The ethmoid bone is present on some slides, appearing blue.]

Olfactory epithelium and underlying lamina propria, 100x:
Showing details of glands in the lamina propria


Olfactory epithelium, 400x
Note the prominent stereocilia


Olfactory epithelium, 400x
opening of a ducts through the epithelium

Slide 13: Tongue, taste buds rabbit (70771), ( MF 9th, page 157)

Taste transducing cells are located in taste buds which line the sides of papillae located on the tongue. Microvilli on the surface of the transducing cells react with sweet, salty, acidic or bitter substances to generate a nervous impulse, interpreted in the brain with its specific taste. (Remember that flavor combines taste and odor.) Make two illustrations on the same page one at 100x and one at 400x:

taste buds, 40x

Edge of tongue, showing papillae and striated muscle, 40x

Here is a labeled view of the taste bud papillae
Taste Bud Papillae: 100x:
fungiform papilla
stratified squamous epithelium
taste buds
taste pore
excretory duct [fr. serous alveoli]
nerve tracts
striated muscle
circular furrow (“trench” between papillae)

Here is a labeled version of the taste bud, Verhoef Stain, 400x, .
a Taste Bud: ( MF 9th, page 159), 400x:
taste buds
taste pore
taste hairs (microvilli)
lingual mucosa (surrounds buds)
lamina propria

Slide 10: Vater-Pacini corpuscles, pancreas, H-eosin (H 1688)
Pressure detection: Pacinian Corpuscles in the pancreas: Pacinian corpuscles are specialized nerve endings which detect pressure and vibration in an organ.


Here is a labeled view of Pacinian corpuscles.
Pacinian Corpuscles (MF 9 th: page 229 and 147) at 100x:
Pacinian corpuscle:
connective tissue capsule
central cavity with numerous lamellae (with flattened nuclei)
naked dendrite
pancreatic acini

Histology of the Inner Ear

Histology of the Inner Ear

Follow protocol Notebook Illustrations

Above left are the three ossicles photographed with a dime to show their relative size. The left most bone is the malleus (hammer) which is attached directly to the typmanic membrane. It transmits vibrations to the incus (anvil) which in turn transmits vibrations to the right most bone, the stapes (stirrup). The flat end of the stapes fits into the oval window of the cochlea which then transmits vibrations into the cochlea along the scala vestibuli.

Examine the following two slides, note the features in common and the differentiating features. Illustrate each at the noted power to take up a page. Compare with the illustrations in di Fiore’s Atlas of Normal Human Histology, 9th Ed.

Slide 9: Ear, cochlea., guinea pig, (71571) Two views, and overview, and a detail: (see MF 9th, page 347, fig. 19-7 & fig 19-9)

Cochlea cross section, Overview at 40x:
scala vestibuli (from oval window)
vestibular membrane
scala tympani (to round window)
basilar membrane
cochlear duct
organ of corti
osseus labyrinth (bony case)
spiral lamina (bony core)
spiral ganglion
cochlear nerve (visible in some)
Here is a labeled view of the 40x view including the cochlear nerve.

Cochlea, showing helicotrema and an intact set of membranes:
vestibular membrane
basilar membrane

cross section through cochlear loop

Cochlear duct detail, 100x: (MF 9th, page 347, fig 19-8.)
organ of corti
tectorial membrane
hair cells (orange at tips)
internal spiral sulcus
basilar membrane
spiral ligament
cochlear duct Here is the image labeled .
vestibular membrane
scala vestibuli
scala tympani
osseus spiral lamina
spiral ganglion


Organ of Corti
organ of corti
tectorial membrane
hair cells (orange at tips)
internal spiral sulcus
basilar membrane
spiral ligament
cochlear duct
vestibular membrane
osseus spiral lamina

Slide 11. Crista ampullaris (H 1697)

The semicircular canals detect angular or rotational acceleration. This is a cross section through an ampulla of a semicircular duct. (There is no illustration in di Fiore.)

Semicircular Canal, 40x, cross section
Note boney labyrinth surrounding the canal


Crista Ampullaris, 100x:
crista ampullaris (ridge-like structure)
receptor epithelium (hair cells on crista)
cupola (gelatinous mass on top of the crista)
ampulla of semicircular duct
endolymph (fills the chamber)
membranous labyrinth Here is a labeled view of the crista ampullaris.

Crista Ampullaris, 400x
Hair cells can be made out.