Models of Major Joints

Models of Major Joints

These images have not been evaluated for detail, focus or best perspective. The page will change.

Hip: anterior and posterior

Elbow: anterior and posterior

Shoulder: lateral, posterior and superior-lateral-anterior

Knee: medial and lateral

Knee: internal detail

The Hind Limb Joints of a Deer

The Hind Limb Joints of a Deer

Here is the hip joint labeled. Here is a labeled view of the knee joint.


Cut open the pubofemoral capsule to reveal the labrum
As the capsule is cut open further, the ligamentum teres can be seen within the acetabulum
With the entire capusle cut, the head of the femur can be pulled aside showing the ligamentum teres connecting to the acetabulum and the acetabular labrum around the edge of the acetabulum.

Here is a labeled version of the same hip joint.

This close up of the head of the femur shows the articular cartilage which covers it (white, smooth hyaline, the fovea capitis at which the ligamentum teres attaches, and theturned back synovial membrane which lines the inside of the articular capsule.
The femur and the acetabulum separated and lined up


(These pictures were taken during dissection of both the right and left knees. Those taken of the left knee have been rotated so they all have the same relationship and either are or appear to be the right knee…)

Undissected knee of a deer (patella on the upper R of picture).
Articular capsule has been opened up to see the patellar surface of the femur. The lateral collateral ligament is seen at the left of the specimen.
Open capsule showing the the patellar surface of the femur to the left, and the articular surface of the patella to the right.
Lateral collateral ligament attaches the femur to the tibia (deer have no discernable fibula to which this ligament attaches in humans).
Cut through the popliteal portion of the articular capsule to reveal the posterioir cruciate ligament. The medial meniscus is visible just to the right of the PCL.
Cruciate ligaments of the knee are visible between the femoral condyles.
Knee joint opened up to show the cruciate ligaments and the menisci. The femoral condyles and patellar surface are clear as well.
surface of tibial menisci on knee.

proximal surface of the tibia show the menisci and the remnants of the cruciate ligaments. The remains of the patellar ligament is at the top of the picture
Here is a labeled version of the same hip joint.


The distal end of the femur shows the stumps of the cruciate ligaments in the intercondylar fossa.
Here is a labeled view of the knee joint.


patellar surface of the femur

Features of Major Joints

Features of Major Joints

Examine the models provided and identify the following features of these joints. Articulated joints will be brought in from a local butcher, and you should identify these features on them and illustrate the specimen. Note that wordstems will help you tremendously in locating and understanding the connections these features make.menisci

Here are pictures taken of a dissected knee and hip from a deer (thanks to Kathy and Andy):
Here are images of recently purchased joint models.


These are common to all synovial joints: (Martini’s 6th, p 266)
synovial capsule A collagenous structure which encloses, supports and protects the joint.
It often incorporates ligaments into its walls.
synovial membrane Forms the inner lining of capsule, secretes synovial fluid
articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage padding on the articulating surfaces of joined bones
synovial fluid A lubricating, nourishing fluid rich in mucopolysaccharide. Contained within the capsule.

Illustrate each joint from the perspective specified, label features you can see, not the ones in brackets which cannot be seen:

superior view of shoulder:

shoulder, superior view

Here is a labeled version SHOULDER (glenohumeral): (lateral view) (Martini’s 6th, p 277)
clavicle, scapula, humerus glenohumeral ligament (divided into three parts, superior, middle (towards the froknt) and inferior (split in two) portions)
[coracohumeral ligament (not on model) ] [glenoid labrum (hidden on model) ]
transverse humeral ligament (bridges the greater and lessor tubercles)
tendon of long head biceps brachii (lies in the intertubercular groove)
tendon sheath of long head of biceps brachii [musculotendinous cuff (not on model)]
Here is a labeled version

ELBOW: (superior, anterior view) (Martini’s 6th, p 278)
humerus, ulna, radius radial collateral ligament (or lateral) lateral epicondyle
annular ligament and radia notch on ulna
ulnar collateral ligament (or medial)
medial epicondyle
anterior ligament [coronoid process , under the anterior ligament] [tendon of triceps (not on model, would be attached to olecranon process)]
Here is a labeled version

KNEE JOINT: (lateral view) (Martini’s 6th, pp 281).
femur, patella, tibia, fibula lateral collateral ligament [medial collateral ligament, seen in medial view]
anterior cruciate ligament: indicate with dotted lines (the lateral of the two cruciate ligaments)
posterior cruciate ligament : indicate with dotted lines
popliteal ligaments (multiple, at the rear of the knee)
patellar ligament (attaches the patella to the tibial tuberosity, famous for it use in the patellar reflex text)
lateral meniscus [medial meniscus, seen in medial view]

Here is a labeled view of the proximal tibial features of the knee joint from a deer

Knee, showing the way that the:
anterior cruciate ligament tightens upon extension of the leg
posterior cruciate ligament prevents femur from sliding forward on the tibial surface, especially during flexion of the leg.
Another model of the flexed knee.
Here are the cruciate ligaments of a chicken knee joint, labeled.
Here is a labeled version, extended
Here is a labeled version flexed

HIP JOINT: Illustrate two views of the hip, anterior and posterior.

Here is the dissected hip joint labeled.


(Martini’s 6th , p 279)
ilium, pubis, ischium, femur capsule strengthened by these ligaments:
iliofemoral ligament
(numbered #3 on the model)
pubofemoral (or pubocapsular ) ligament (numbered #4)
Another model of the anterior hip.


HIP JOINT, POSTERIOR: (Martini’s 6th , p 279)
posterior view, capsule strengthened by these ligaments:
ischiofemoral (or ischiocapsular ) ligament (numbered #5) iliofemoral ligament (at the top)
[ligamentum teres ties femur to os coxa, hidden by ligaments]
[acetabular labrum lip of cartilage, hidden by ligaments ]
Another model of the posterior hip.


Medial view of the os coxa with a portion cut out to show the head of the femur and the ligamentum teres (numbered #6). It also shows the obturator ligament

Illustrate two views of the hip, anterior and posterior: