These are lecture notes listed in sequence:
These pages display the criteria by which I was grading notebooks this grading period. We will go over them in lab as well.
The first three images are of notes taken by students during a demonstration dissection, showing appropriate detail in the information which was being given as the dissection was performed.
Table of Contents
For the laboratory, please mount the following items in your notebook:
Table of Contents Template_26Aug2016, etc (Excel Spreadsheet Template to download)
“SLIDES FOR A&P 2001” (This list combines the A&P 201 Slides: Tissues to Muscles (Fall) with the first half of the A&P 202 slides.)
A&P Dissection kit check lists , number 1 (for notebook) & 2 (for instructor)
Recording an EEG
(NOTE: The material covered in A&P 2001 no longer covers the special senses. That material will be covered in A&P 2002.)
Here is an image bank for Test One
Here are the images for Test Two, October 2015
Here is an images bank for Test Three.
Here is a test bank images for Test Four.
Here are images from Test Five. April 2013.
Here are labeled images from A&P 201 for review for the final exam
LABORATORY HANDOUTS: directory of pdf files for A&P 2002
A&P 2002 Labeled Images
Here is a chronological set of all labeled images used in Anatomy and Physiology 202 Lab during Winter Quarter 2009. Let me know if there are any problems with the links.
NERVOUS SYSTEM HISTOLOGY
Histology of the neuron and central nervous system
Histology of the motor end plate
NERVOUS SYSTEM EMBRYOLOGY
Embryo, Chick, 72 hour
SPINAL REFLEX COMPONENTS
Spinal Reflex component, labeled black board illustration
Sympathetic Motor Pathway board illustration
ANATOMY OF SPINAL NERVES
Nerves and features of the cat neck
Cervical Spinal Nerves
Thoracic Cavity, Chain Ganglia
Nerves of the Upper Appendage, Cat
Nerves of the Sacral Plexus and Lower Appendage
Close up of Sacral Plexus, Sciatic Nerve
HISTOLOGY OF THE EYE
Histology of Entire Eye, 25x
Histology of the features of the anterior cavity.
Histology of the AnteriorPortion of the Eye, close up
Histology of the Retina, 100x
Histology of the Retina, 400x
HISTOLOGY OF ORGANS OF SMELL AND TASTE
Histology of the Olfactory Empthelium, 100x
Histology of fungiform papillae, striated muscle, 40x
Histology of Gustatory organs, 100x
ENDOCRINE ORGANS IN THE CAT
Pituitary, intact on ventral cat brain
Ventral Neck and Thorax: Thyroid, Thymus
Endocrine organs of the Digestive System
Reproductive Tract, Female Cat
Reproductive Tract, Male Cat
PERFORMING BLOOD CELL COUNTS BY HEMATOCRIT
Hematocrit tube after centrifugation (Note plasma, buffy coat and packed cells)
Hematocrit determination completed
Buret Reading Practice
Reading a BuretAccurate reading of a buret depends on your ability to interpolate between the calibration lines on the buret. Properly performed, you can reliably read a buret to the nearest 0.01 mL. Test your ability to interpolate by reading the following images of burets containing varying amounts of iodine from vitamin C titrations.
The actual readings are embedded in the name of the image:
A vernier scale (invented by the French mathematician Pierre Vernier) is a device which allows accurate interpolation of numbers on a fine scale. It consists of a primary or regular scale, and a sliding vernier scale marked such that 11 lines on the vernier scale equal 10 lines on the primary scale. By noting which of the lines on the vernier scale lines up with any line on the primary scale, the tenth of a unit on the primary scale can be read with accuracy. We use it in the biology lab to identify “addresses” of microscopic features such as classes of leukocytes so that the specific cells can be located in the future.
Procedure: Align the cell whose address you wish to record in the exact center of the field of view at the highest power convenient. Read the fore and aft scale (on the right of the microscope): the primary scale value just to the left of the vernier zero line is the whole number. The fraction of the whole number corresponds to the number on the vernier scale whose line lines up with any line on the primary scale. The vernier number is the decimal to be added to the primary whole number. Here are a few examples (the answers are at the bottom of the page):
Arteries for Which A&P Students Are Responsible
Page references in Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 5th Ed. (2001).
HEART P. 657, 658, 666
pulmonary trunk (splits to form)
R & L pulmonary arteries
R & L coronary arteries
anterior interventricular artery
anterior & posterior interventricular arteries
THORAX p. 725, 726, 730
R common carotid
internal carotid (to brain)
(to face and scalp)
L common carotid
R internal thoracic
NECK p. 728
R & L vertebral arteries
R & L internal carotids
Circle of Willis:
ABDOMEN p. 730, 732
L gastric artery (L most)
splenic artery (middle)
Common hepatic artery (R most)
R & L hepatic
R gastric artery (joins L gastric)
superior mesenteric artery
R&L renal arteries
R&L gonadal arteries
inferior mesenteric artery
R & L common iliac
UPPER APPENDAGE p. 726
R & L subclavian
brachial (branches at elbow)
superficial palmar arch
deep palmar arch
LOWER APPENDAGE p.733
Vitamin C Excretion Problems
Remember to set up a table to record and process your titration data as follows:
aliquot size being titrated:________ mL
conversion factor of iodine being used: _________ mg vitamin C/mL iodine
|Trial I||Trial II||Trial III|
The start for trial II should equal the finish of Trial I, etc (assuming no leakage of titrant between titrations). Once the three flasks are titrated, you average the iodine used by adding them up and dividing by three.
The answers to the problems are at the bottom of the page.
1.00 mL aliquots of 1% ascorbic acid were titrated in triplicate with iodine of unknown strength. Successive readings on the buret were: 12.94, 24.35, 35.73, 46.00 mL. What is the conversion factor for this iodine?
2. Assay of urine:
10 mL aliquots of urine were titrated in triplicate with iodine having a conversion factor of 0.932 mg vitamin C/mL iodine. The following are successive readings on the buret: 15.91, 16.08, 16.28 and 16.47 mL. What is the average amount of vitamin C in the 10 mL aliquot?
3. Assay of orange juice:
5 mL of orange juice was found to contain 2.37 mg of vitamin C. How much vitamin C is there in 100 mL?
4. Calculation of urine production:
What is the urine production rate per hour if the bladder was voided at 2:30 and 510 mL was collected at 4:30?
5. Calc. of Vit C excretion rate:
If a person produces urine with 1.43 mg vitamin C/10 mL aliquot, and they produced 167 mL in an hour, what is the excretion rate/hr?
6. Calculation of urine production:
A person who drank a lot of Coke produced 230 mL in 20 minutes. What was their urinary production rate per hour?
7. Calculation of urine production:
A person voided after breakfast at 8:27 AM. At 12:15 PM, he produced a total of 396 mL of urine. What was his hourly rate of urine production? (Hint: express total time as hours, calculating fraction of hr as # of minutes/60)
8. Calculation of urine production:
A poor A&P student voided her bladder at the beginning of Lab (2:12 PM–she came in late…). At 4:12 PM, she produced 438 mL of urine. What is her rate of production of urine per hour?
9. Calc. of Vit C excretion rate:
The student in the previous question titrated 10 mL of urine from question 8 in triplicate with iodine whose conversion factor was 0.729 mg vitamin C/mL iodine. She got the following successive numbers: 12.01, 14.79, 17.51 and 20.53 mL.
a: What was the content of vitamin C in 10 mL of her urine?
b. What was the total number of 10 mL aliquots which she produced in an hour?
c: What was the total amount of vitamin C which she excreted in an hour?
(Here is problem 9 worked out if you would like to compare it to your work.)
1. 0.907 mg vit C/mL iodine
2. 0.174 mg vit C/10 mL
3. 47.4 mg vit C/100 mL
4. 255 mL/hour
5. 23.9 mg vit C/hr
6. 690 mL/hr
7. 104 mL/hr
8. 219 mL/hr
9a. 2.07 mg vit C/10 mL
9b. 21.9 aliquots
9c. 45.3 mg vit C/hr
Dissection of to Show Circulatory Features
The following directions should assist you in locating the major arteries and veins in the cat. You should also consult Gilbert’s Pictorial Anatomy of the Cat during the dissections. For the page numbers, see the protocol A
natomy of the Circulatory System in the Cat.
HEART AND CHEST:
With the chest cavity open, split the parietal pericardium by snipping upward from the apex toward the base. Peel it back to reveal the heart. Note the superior vena cava is prominent in the mediastinal space above the heart and the inferior vena cava is below and behind the heart in a direct line with the superior vena cava.
Note the atria (R & L) the ventricles and the anterior interventricular artery. Note the pulmonary trunk emerging diagonally up to your right from the R ventricle.
Here is a labeled view of the cat heart.
You may wish to make a transverse section through the upper portions of the ventricles of the heart. Illustrate this transverse section to show the R ventricle, interventricular septum and the L ventricle . Comment on the differences observed. If you do not do this procedure, observe and illustrate one on which it has been performed.
Use the blunt probe to trace the branching of the superior vena cava to produce in succession the R & L innominate veins. These branch to form the jugular and the subclavian. The subclavian branches to form the subscapular and the axillary veins.
Here is a labeled picture of the veins of the thorax.
Behind the pulmonary artery, use the probe to find the aortic arch and its two branches (three in the human): the innominant artery (or brachiocephalic) and the left subclavian. Follow the innominant to its branches: L & R common carotids, and the R subclavian. Trace this latter to the R axillary, and then the R brachial artery.
Here is a labeled view of the aortic arch and the “Great Vessels.”
The circle of Willis is formed from the two vertebral arteries below, which join to form the basilar artery. The basilar splits into the R & L posterior cerebral arteries. The internal carotids enter the cranium on either side of the sella turcica, and split to form the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. Posterior communicating arteries join the posterior and middle cerebral arteries, and the anterior communication artery joins the two anterior cerebral arteries. Here is a labeled version of the circle of Willis .
Roll the L lung medially and follow the descending aorta down along the rear wall of the thorax. Note the intercostal arteries running between the ribs under the parietal pleura.
Move the abdominal contents to the right, and find the rear border of the diaphragm. (It is lower in the rear than the front.) using the blunt probe, remove the peritoneum and adventitia to reveal the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries immediately below the diaphragm over the vertebral column. Find the three branches of the celiac artery: the hepatic to the cat’s R, the splenic (the large central vessel), and to the L, the left gastric
Here is a labeled version of the upper abdominal arteries.
R & L Renal arteries and veins should be easily located. Note that the L gonadal vein drains into the L renal vein, while the R gonadal vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava . The R & L gonadal arteries branch off the descending aorta below the level of the kidneys. The last major branch from the abdominal aorta is the inferior mesenteric.
LOWER GROIN AND LEGS:
The descending aorta ends where it splits into the R & L common iliac arteries [“external” iliac in the cat]. These branch to form the deep femoral arteries (plunge deep just before abdominal wall) and the femoral arteries at the exit point from the abdomen. The saphenous vein, the major superficial vein of the leg, runs down the medial surface of the of the leg.
FEATURES TO IDENTIFY AND ILLUSTRATE IN THE CAT:
III. CIRCLE OF WILLIS
(underside of well-excised brain) (p. 82)
R&L posterior cerebral arteries
R&L posterior communicating arteries
R&L internal carotid arteries
R&L middle cerebral arteries
R&L anterior cerebral arteries
anterior communicating artery (difficult)
IV. THORAX, NECK AND ARMS
External features of the heart
(p. 62-63, 68-69)
left atrium (toward the rear)
Vessels of the thorax, neck and arms (p. 62-63)
superior vena cava (precava)
R&L innominate veins
R&L subclavian veins
R&L external jugular veins (p. 20)
Arteries: (p. 65, 69) (as in cat)
R&L common carotid
R subclavian artery
R axillary artery
R brachial artery
L subclavian artery
V. ABDOMEN, GROIN AND LEG (p. 49-55)
Vessels of the abdomen:
(often under fat, close to vertebral column)
inferior vena cava
celiac artery (move abdominal contents to cat’s R)
L gastric artery
(common) hepatic artery
superior mesenteric artery
renal vein and artery
L gonadal vein:
empties into L renal vein
R gonadal vein:
empties into inferior vena cava
R&L gonadal arteries
inferior mesenteric artery
Lower groin and leg (p. 71)
external [common] iliac artery & vein
deep femoral artery (plunges just before abdml wall)
femoral artery & vein