Anatomy & Physiology 2002 Lecture Notes, Directory

These are lecture notes listed in sequence:

001a_Telencephalon.Nov15

001b_Autonomic_NS.Jan11

001c_Autonomic_neurotransmitters.Feb10

001d_Emotions_Memory.Feb11

01_Olfaction_Taste.Jan16

001d_Integration_Emotions.Jan16

02_Eye_Accessory_Structures.Jan16

03_Eye_histology_physiology.Jan16

04_Hearing.Feb12

05.5_Endocrine_Intro.Feb16

05_Balance_Organs.Feb16

06_Pituitary.Feb16

07_Thyroid_Adrenal.Feb2016

08_Pancreas.Mar11

09_Pineal.Feb2016

10_Blood.Feb2016

11_12_Leukocytes.Hemostasis.Feb2016

12_Blood_Clotting.Feb2016

13_Heart.Mar2016

14_Heart_electrical.Mar2016

15_Arteries_and_Veins_Lecture.Mar2016

16_Circulation_Special.Mar2016

17_Lymphatic_Sys.Mar2016

18_Defenses.Mar2016

19_Immunity.Mar2016

20_Respiratory_Sys.Mar2016

21_Respiratory_Physiology.Mar2016

22_Digestive_Sys_to_stomach.29Mar2016

23_Digestive_Sys_Intestines.Mar2016

24_Liver_&_Pancreas.March2016

25_Metabolism_I_catabolism.April2016

26_Metabolism_II_BMR_hunger.11April2016

26a_Nutrition_I_water_soluble.Apr10

26b_Nutrition_II_Oil_Soluble_Sources.Apr10

27_Urinary_System.12April2016

28_Kidney_regulation.12April2016

29_Repro_embryology_spermatogenesis.12April2016

30_Male_reproductive_system.12April2016

31_Female_Repro_Anat.12April2016

32_Female_Hormones.12April2016

33_Development.June09

34_pregnancy_birth.June10

35_Labor_May12

Sample Notebook Pages

These pages display the criteria by which I was grading notebooks this grading period.  We will go over them in lab as well.

The first three images are of notes taken by students during a demonstration dissection, showing appropriate detail in the information which was being given as the dissection was performed.

Anatomy & Physiology 2001 Table of Contents, Syllabus and Lab Handouts

Table of Contents

000_Syllabus_Packet_18Aug2016

Lecture Notes Directory

Laboratory Handouts Directory

GetBodySmart Anatomy Study Guide

How to Take a Fankhauser Anatomy and Physiology Course

Wordstems, Chronological Order, Rev. 2013

Cumulative Wordstems with Associated Meanings, Rev. 2013

Study Groups, Effective Peer-to-Peer Education, Rev. 2009

Study Group Report Form, Fall 2015

For the laboratory, please mount the following items in your notebook:

A&P 2001 Lab Schedule

Laboratory Notebook Procedures

Format for Table of Contents

Table of Contents Template_26Aug2016, etc (Excel Spreadsheet Template to download)

Use Of Contact Paper For Mounting Handouts

Notebook Illustrations

Sample First Notebook Grade Sheet, previous year

Sample Second Notebook Grade Sheet, previous year

The Binocular Microscope: Its Features And Care

Microscope Storage Grade Sheet

How To View A Slide; Evaluating The Microscope

“SLIDES FOR A&P 2001” (This list combines the A&P 201 Slides: Tissues to Muscles (Fall) with the first half of the A&P 202 slides.)

Buccal Smear

Epithelial Tissues Lab

Connective Tissues Lab

Cartilage Histology Lab

Integumentary System

Bone Histology Lab

Bones And Features Of Skull

A&P Dissection kit check lists , number 1 (for notebook) & 2 (for instructor)

Dissection Of Cat I: Skinning

Features Of Selected Bones Here is a page of terms for features of bones with links to images.

Features Of Major Joints

Muscle Histology Lab

Muscles Of The Head And Trunk

Muscles To Identify In The Cat: Lower Appendages

Slides for A&P 202 (Winter): Nervous System to Blood

Intro to Nervous Tissue Histology

Embryonic Development of the Brain, 60 Hour Chick Embryo

Brain development pictures xeroxed from Balinsky

Histology of Cerebrum & Cerebellum

Key to Brain Model Components, xeroxed diagrams: page 1 , page 2 , labels

Removal and Study of the Cat Brain

Cranial Nerves in the Cat Brain

Histology of Spinal Cord

Spinal Reflex: the Patellar Reflex

Peripheral Nerves to Locate in the Cat

Recording an EEG 
(NOTE: The material covered in A&P 2001 no longer covers the special senses. That material will be covered in A&P 2002.)

Histology of the Eye

Dissection of the Eye and its Orbit in the Cat

Histology of the Inner Ear

Visual Reaction Time

Nystagmus Demonstration

Histology of Smell & Taste


Related

Here is an image bank for Test One

Here are the images for Test Two, October 2015

Here is an images bank for Test Three.

Here is a test bank images for Test Four.

Here are images from Test Five. April 2013.

Here are labeled images from A&P 201 for review for the final exam

Here is a YouTube video illustrating the physiology of muscle contraction.

Directory of PDF files for A&P 2002

LABORATORY HANDOUTS: directory of pdf files for A&P 2002

01_202_Lab_Table_ContentsDec11

02_202_Lab_Schedule.Dec11

03_Notebook_Procedure_AP.Sept11

04_Table_of_Contents_Format.Dec11

05_Contact_Paper.July09

06_Illustrations.Sept05

07_Microscope_Features_Care

08_How_to_View_a_Slide.Sept10

09_NB_202_First_03Feb11

10_NB_Sample_2nd_03Mar11

11_Slides_202.Dec09

12_Nervous_Tissue_Histology_Dec09

13_Brain_Development.Dec09

14_Chick_Embryo_Dev.Dec09

15_Brain_Histology Dec10

17_Cat_Brain Dec10

18_Cat_cranial_nerves.Dec04

19_Spinal_Cord_Histology.Dec04

20_Patellar_Reflex.Dec10

21_Cat_Nerves.Dec08

22_EEG_protocol.Feb11

23_Cat_Eye.Dec04

24_Eye_Histology.Feb11

25_Ear_Histology.Feb11

26_Visual_Reaction.Feb11

27_Nystagmus_Demo.Dec09

28_Smell_and_Taste.Dec09

29_Endocrine_Organs.Feb09

30_Endocrine_Histology.Feb10

31_Blood_Counts_practice.Mar1032_Hematocrit.Dec10

32_Hematocrit_equipment_list.Dec10

33_Blood_Counts.Mar11

34_WBC_Count_Grids.Dec11

A&P 2002 Labeled Images

A&P 2002 Labeled Images

Here is a chronological set of all labeled images used in Anatomy and Physiology 202 Lab during Winter Quarter 2009. Let me know if there are any problems with the links.

NERVOUS SYSTEM HISTOLOGY
Histology of the neuron and central nervous system
Histology of the motor end plate

NERVOUS SYSTEM EMBRYOLOGY
Embryo, Chick, 72 hour

BRAIN HISTOLOGY
Cerebrum, 40x
Cerebral Cortex, 400x
Cerebellum, 100x
Cerebellum, 400x

BRAIN ANATOMY
Human Brain, cross section
Sheep Brain, midsagittal split
Cat Brain, Ventral view
Cat Brain, Ventral Surface
Cat Brain, posterior view
Cat Brain, deep posterior view

CRANIAL NERVES
Cranial nerves, cat
Cranial Nerves, unlabeled drawing
Cranial Nerves, Human model, numbered (broken link to http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~dearworj/BIOL214/Images/humanCranialNerve.jpg)

SPINAL CORD HISTOLOGY
Spinal Cord, 40x
Central Canal, Spinal Cord, 400x
Anterior Horn Cells, Spinal Cord, 400x
Dorsal Root Ganglion and spinal cord, 25x
Dorsal Root Ganglion, 100x
Pacinian corpuscles

SPINAL REFLEX COMPONENTS
Spinal Reflex component, labeled black board illustration
Sympathetic Motor Pathway board illustration
ANATOMY OF SPINAL NERVES
Nerves and features of the cat neck
Cervical Spinal Nerves
Thoracic Cavity, Chain Ganglia
Nerves of the Upper Appendage, Cat
Nerves of the Sacral Plexus and Lower Appendage
Close up of Sacral Plexus, Sciatic Nerve

RECORDING, ANALYSIS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH
Higher Brain Function, Electrical Activity, Board Notes1, Board notes 2.
Electroencephalograph, waves labeled

ANATOMY OF THE EYE (CAT)
Removal of the Eye, Cuts to Make
Muscles which move the eye, cat
Features of the Cat Eye, internal and external
Features of the Cat Eye, internal

HISTOLOGY OF THE EYE
Histology of Entire Eye, 25x
Histology of the features of the anterior cavity.
Histology of the AnteriorPortion of the Eye, close up
Histology of the Retina, 100x
Histology of the Retina, 400x

VISUAL REACTION TIME
Visual reaction time calculation, metric system
Visual reaction time calculation using yard stick (English system)

ORGANS OF THE INNER EAR, ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Ossicles, 10x
Cross section through the Cochlea, 25x
Cross section through the Cochlear Duct, 100x
Crista Ampularis of the Semicircular Canals, 100x

HISTOLOGY OF ORGANS OF SMELL AND TASTE
Histology of the Olfactory Empthelium, 100x
Histology of fungiform papillae, striated muscle, 40x
Histology of Gustatory organs, 100x

ENDOCRINE ORGANS IN THE CAT
Pituitary, intact on ventral cat brain
Ventral Neck and Thorax: Thyroid, Thymus
Endocrine organs of the Digestive System
Reproductive Tract, Female Cat
Reproductive Tract, Male Cat

HISTOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE ORGANS
Histology of the Hypophysis (Pituitary), 40x
Histology of the Thyroid, 400x
Histology of the Adrenal Gland, 40x
Histology of the Pancreas, Islets of Langerhans, 40x

PERFORMING BLOOD CELL COUNTS WITH A HEMACYTOMETER
Diluting Pipets
Dilution for WBC count completed
Loading theHemacytometer
Grids for Counting Erythrocytes
RBCs to be counted in upper left square

PERFORMING BLOOD CELL COUNTS BY HEMATOCRIT
Hematocrit tube after centrifugation (Note plasma, buffy coat and packed cells)
Hematocrit determination completed

Buret Reading Practice

Buret Reading Practice

Reading a BuretAccurate reading of a buret depends on your ability to interpolate between the calibration lines on the buret.  Properly performed, you can reliably read a buret to the nearest 0.01 mL.  Test your ability to interpolate by reading the following images of burets containing varying amounts of iodine from vitamin C titrations.

Here are related pages on Vitamin C titrations:

Vitamin C Assay Introduction and Reagents
Titration Protocol
Standardization of 0.01 N Iodine Titrant

The actual readings are embedded in the name of the image:

Vernier Scales

Vernier Scales

A vernier scale (invented by the French mathematician Pierre Vernier) is a device which allows accurate interpolation of numbers on a fine scale.  It consists of a primary or regular scale, and a sliding vernier scale marked such that 11 lines on the vernier scale equal 10 lines on the primary scale.  By noting which of the lines on the vernier scale lines up with any line on the primary scale, the tenth of a unit on the primary scale can be read with accuracy.  We use it in the biology lab to identify “addresses” of microscopic features such as classes of leukocytes so that the specific cells can be located in the future.

Procedure:  Align the cell whose address you wish to record in the exact center of the field of view at the highest power convenient. Read the fore and aft scale (on the right of the microscope):  the primary scale value just to the left of the vernier zero line is the whole number.  The fraction of the whole number corresponds to the number on the vernier scale whose line lines up with any line on the primary scale.  The vernier number is the decimal to be added to the primary whole number.  Here are a few examples (the answers are at the bottom of the page):

P4013804

1


P4013809
2


P4013810

3


P4013807

4


P4013808

5


P4013805

6


P4013803

7


P4020163

8


P4020157

9


P4020158

10


P4020162

11


P4020163
12


P4020159

13


P4020155
14


1. 26.4
2. 161.0
3. 101.6
4. 108.6
5. 142.1
6. 42.5
7. 26.9
8. 37.0
9. 42.7
10. 125.9
11. 129.2
12. 37.0
13. 160.5
14. 28.9

Arteries for Which A&P Students Are Responsible

Arteries for Which A&P Students Are Responsible

Page references in Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 5th Ed. (2001).

HEART P. 657, 658, 666
pulmonary trunk (splits to form)
R & L pulmonary arteries
Ascending Aorta
R & L coronary arteries
anterior interventricular artery
circumflex artery
anterior & posterior interventricular arteries

THORAX p. 725, 726, 730
Aortic Arch
brachiocephalic
R common carotid
internal carotid (to brain)
external carotid
(to face and scalp)
R subclavian
R axillary
R brachial
L common carotid
L subclavian
L axillary
L brachial
Descending aorta
R internal thoracic
intercostal arteries

NECK p. 728
common carotid
carotid sinus
external carotid
facial
occipital
maxillary
superficial temporal
internal carotid
vertebral

BRAIN p.729
R & L vertebral arteries
basilar
R & L internal carotids

Circle of Willis:
posterior cerebral
posterior communicating
middle cerebral
anterior communicating
anterior cerebral

ABDOMEN p. 730, 732
celiac artery
L gastric artery (L most)
splenic artery (middle)
Common hepatic artery (R most)
R & L hepatic
R gastric artery (joins L gastric)
superior mesenteric artery
R&L renal arteries
R&L gonadal arteries
inferior mesenteric artery
R & L common iliac
internal iliac
external iliac

UPPER APPENDAGE p. 726
R & L subclavian
axillary
brachial (branches at elbow)
radial
ulnar
superficial palmar arch
deep palmar arch
digitals

LOWER APPENDAGE p.733
femoral
deep femoral
popliteal
Anterior tibial
posterior tibial
peroneal
dorsal pedis
lateral plantar
medial plantar
plantar arch

 

Vitamin C Excretion Problems

Vitamin C Excretion Problems

Remember to set up a table to record and process your titration data as follows:

aliquot size being titrated:________ mL

conversion factor of iodine being used: _________ mg vitamin C/mL iodine

 

Trial I Trial II Trial III
finish:
start: __________ __________ __________
iodine used:

The start for trial II should equal the finish of Trial I, etc (assuming no leakage of titrant between titrations). Once the three flasks are titrated, you average the iodine used by adding them up and dividing by three.

The answers to the problems are at the bottom of the page.

PROBLEMS:

1. Standardization:
1.00 mL aliquots of 1% ascorbic acid were titrated in triplicate with iodine of unknown strength.  Successive readings on the buret were: 12.94, 24.35, 35.73, 46.00 mL.  What is the conversion factor for this iodine?

2. Assay of urine:
10 mL aliquots of urine were titrated in triplicate with iodine having a conversion factor of 0.932 mg vitamin C/mL iodine.  The following are successive readings on the buret:  15.91, 16.08, 16.28 and 16.47 mL.  What is the average amount of vitamin C in the 10 mL aliquot?

3. Assay of orange juice:
5 mL of orange juice was found to contain 2.37 mg of vitamin C.  How much vitamin C is there in 100 mL?

4. Calculation of urine production:
What is the urine production rate per hour if the bladder was voided at 2:30 and 510 mL was collected at 4:30?

5. Calc. of Vit C excretion rate: 
If a person produces urine with 1.43 mg vitamin C/10 mL aliquot, and they produced 167 mL in an hour, what is the excretion rate/hr?

6. Calculation of urine production:
A person who drank a lot of Coke produced 230 mL in 20 minutes.  What was their urinary production rate per hour?

7. Calculation of urine production:
A person voided after breakfast at 8:27 AM.  At 12:15 PM, he produced a total of 396 mL of urine.  What was his hourly rate of urine production?  (Hint: express total time as hours, calculating fraction of hr as # of minutes/60)

8. Calculation of urine production:
A poor A&P student voided her bladder at the beginning of Lab (2:12 PM–she came in late…).  At 4:12 PM, she produced 438 mL of urine.  What is her rate of production of urine per hour?

9. Calc. of Vit C excretion rate: 
The student in the previous question titrated 10 mL of urine from question 8 in triplicate with iodine whose conversion factor was  0.729 mg vitamin C/mL iodine.  She got the following successive numbers: 12.01, 14.79, 17.51 and 20.53 mL.

a: What was the content of vitamin C in 10 mL of her urine?
b. What was the total number of 10 mL aliquots which she produced in an hour?
c: What was the total amount of vitamin C which she excreted in an hour?

(Here is problem 9 worked out if you would like to compare it to your work.)

Answers:

1.  0.907 mg vit C/mL iodine
2.  0.174 mg vit C/10 mL
3.  47.4 mg vit C/100 mL
4.  255 mL/hour
5.  23.9 mg vit C/hr
6.  690 mL/hr
7.  104 mL/hr
8.  219 mL/hr
9a.  2.07 mg vit C/10 mL
9b.  21.9 aliquots
9c.  45.3 mg vit C/hr

Dissection of to Show Circulatory Features

Dissection of to Show Circulatory Features

The following directions should assist you in locating the major arteries and veins in the cat. You should also consult Gilbert’s Pictorial Anatomy of the Cat during the dissections. For the page numbers, see the protocol A

natomy of the Circulatory System in the Cat.

HEART AND CHEST:

heart_cat_P4113363med

With the chest cavity open, split the parietal pericardium by snipping upward from the apex toward the base. Peel it back to reveal the heart. Note the superior vena cava is prominent in the mediastinal space above the heart and the inferior vena cava is below and behind the heart in a direct line with the superior vena cava.

heart_cat_P4113363crop

Note the atria (R & L) the ventricles and the anterior interventricular artery. Note the pulmonary trunk emerging diagonally up to your right from the R ventricle.
Here is a labeled view of the cat heart.

heart_transverse_P4083877
You may wish to make a transverse section through the upper portions of the ventricles of the heart. Illustrate this transverse section to show the R ventricle, interventricular septum and the L ventricle . Comment on the differences observed. If you do not do this procedure, observe and illustrate one on which it has been performed.

Veins_thorax_P4083871

Use the blunt probe to trace the branching of the superior vena cava to produce in succession the R & L innominate veins. These branch to form the jugular and the subclavian. The subclavian branches to form the subscapular and the axillary veins.
Here is a labeled picture of the veins of the thorax.

aortic_arch_P4083878
Behind the pulmonary artery, use the probe to find the aortic arch and its two branches (three in the human): the innominant artery (or brachiocephalic) and the left subclavian. Follow the innominant to its branches: L & R common carotids, and the R subclavian. Trace this latter to the R axillary, and then the R brachial artery.
Here is a labeled view of the aortic arch and the “Great Vessels.”

Circle_Willis_P4083870
The circle of Willis is formed from the two vertebral arteries below, which join to form the basilar artery. The basilar splits into the R & L posterior cerebral arteries. The internal carotids enter the cranium on either side of the sella turcica, and split to form the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. Posterior communicating arteries join the posterior and middle cerebral arteries, and the anterior communication artery joins the two anterior cerebral arteries. Here is a labeled version of the circle of Willis .

intercostal_P4083879

Roll the L lung medially and follow the descending aorta down along the rear wall of the thorax. Note the intercostal arteries running between the ribs under the parietal pleura.

ABDOMEN:

Celiac_Art_P4083866

Move the abdominal contents to the right, and find the rear border of the diaphragm. (It is lower in the rear than the front.) using the blunt probe, remove the peritoneum and adventitia to reveal the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries immediately below the diaphragm over the vertebral column. Find the three branches of the celiac artery: the hepatic to the cat’s R, the splenic (the large central vessel), and to the L, the left gastric
Here is a labeled version of the upper abdominal arteries.

abdominal_low_arts_P4083876
R & L Renal arteries and veins should be easily located. Note that the L gonadal vein drains into the L renal vein, while the R gonadal vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava . The R & L gonadal arteries branch off the descending aorta below the level of the kidneys. The last major branch from the abdominal aorta is the inferior mesenteric.

LOWER GROIN AND LEGS:

vessels_leg_P4083874

The descending aorta ends where it splits into the R & L common iliac arteries [“external” iliac in the cat]. These branch to form the deep femoral arteries (plunge deep just before abdominal wall) and the femoral arteries at the exit point from the abdomen. The saphenous vein, the major superficial vein of the leg, runs down the medial surface of the of the leg.

FEATURES TO IDENTIFY AND ILLUSTRATE IN THE CAT:
III. CIRCLE OF WILLIS
(underside of well-excised brain) (p. 82)
basilar artery
R&L posterior cerebral arteries
R&L posterior communicating arteries
R&L internal carotid arteries
R&L middle cerebral arteries
R&L anterior cerebral arteries
anterior communicating artery (difficult)

IV. THORAX, NECK AND ARMS
External features of the heart
(p. 62-63, 68-69)
pericardium
right atrium
right ventricle
left atrium (toward the rear)
pulmonary trunk
aorta

Vessels of the thorax, neck and arms (p. 62-63)
Veins:
superior vena cava (precava)
R&L innominate veins
R&L subclavian veins
axillary vein
brachial vein
R&L external jugular veins (p. 20)

Arteries: (p. 65, 69) (as in cat)
innominate artery
R&L common carotid
R subclavian artery
R axillary artery
R brachial artery
L subclavian artery
[esophagus]
descending aorta
intercostal arteries

V. ABDOMEN, GROIN AND LEG (p. 49-55)
Vessels of the abdomen:
(often under fat, close to vertebral column)
inferior vena cava
descending aorta
celiac artery (move abdominal contents to cat’s R)
L gastric artery
splenic artery
(common) hepatic artery
superior mesenteric artery
renal vein and artery
L gonadal vein:
empties into L renal vein
R gonadal vein:
empties into inferior vena cava
R&L gonadal arteries
inferior mesenteric artery

Lower groin and leg (p. 71)
external [common] iliac artery & vein
deep femoral artery (plunges just before abdml wall)
femoral artery & vein
saphenous vein