Biology 1081 Lecture, Lecture Notes, Directory

02_2016_Fall_BIOL_1081_Syllabus_Calendar_10Aug2016

00_2016_Fall_1081_Syllabus_Packet

01_Traits_of_living_orgs.22Aug16

02_History_Biology_table.11May2016

04_Atomic_Theory.26Aug16

05 Water.18May2016

06__carbon_09sept2016

07a_Sugars_intro-sept16

07b_Sugars_di_poly.June16

08_Sugar_eval_sheet-12sept16

09_lipids-16sept2016

10_complex_lipids-16sept2016

11_protein-30sept2016

12a_Protein_Demo.Nov08

12c_Protein_Complementation_pages_2916_001

13_origins_of_life-26sept2016

14_organelles-05oct2016

15_membranes_osmosis-14oct2016rtf

16_metabolism_energy-12oct2016

17_respiration-12october2016

18_electron_transport-21oct2016

19_Photosynthesis_Hist.July2016

20_Photosynthesis_Light_Reactions.July2016

21_Photosynthesis_Dark _Rxns.July2016

22_Mitosis+Meiosis.July2016

23_Genetics_Intro_Mendel.July2016

24_Genes_&_Probability.18July2016

25_26_Human_Genetic_Traits.Sex_Linkage_8April2016

27_DNA_History.25July2016

28_DNA_structure.Feb12

29_Molecular_Genetics.01Aug2016

31_Viruses.Feb12

32_Intro_Bacteria.Feb12

33_Staph_&_Strep.Feb11

34_Growth_Requirements.Mar09

35_Clostridial_Diseases.Mar12

36_Immunity.Mar12

37_Protista.Mar12

38_Fungi.Mar11

PowerPoint Presentation:   WITCHES_OINTMENTS.Oct14

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Organs of Respiration in the Cat

Organs of Respiration in the Cat

Examine these slide at low power first to find the field which best demonstrates the listed features. Label the indicated features, and briefly describe their functions.

Locate and examine the following organs of the respiratory tract in the cat. Review the function of each as you locate them.

Here is an image of fresh lungs deflated and then inflated to show the dramatic difference in volume.

(See Gilbert, Pictorial Anatomy of the Cat, pp 37-41)

Make three illustrations:
1) anterior view of entire respiratory system
2) view down into larynx
3) mid-sagittal section of head

1)  ANTERIOR VIEW OF WHOLE SYSTEM

 

Respiratory_Overview_P4210172_sm

Click to see a labeled view of the system.

thyrohyoid_memb_P4224027

Clear away muscles to see: (Here is a labeled anterior view of the larynx.)
thyrohyoid membrane (connects the larynx to the hyoid bone)
larynx
thyroid cartilage (largest of the laryngeal cartilages, forms the front of the larynx)
cricoid cartilage (ring shaped cartilage upon which the larynx sits)
trachea
tracheal rings
esophagus (behind trachea)

bronchus_P4224026

R & L pleural cavities (Here is a labeled view of the thoracic respiratory organs.)
anterior lobes of R & L lungs (termed superior lobes in human)
middle lobes of R & L lungs (termed middle in human, L lacking)
posterior lobes of R & L lungs (termed inferior lobes in human)
pericardium
root of the lungs
bronchi (behind heart, esp on R side)
pulmonary ligament, attached to:
diaphragm
phrenic nerve
heart lung preparation

heart_lung_prep_P1010064

In butchering, the heart and lung are removed from the thorax as a unit. These images show the heart nestled between the right and left lungs of a goat.

Here are images of the same preparation inflated (1), and inflated (2).

2)  VIEW DOWN INTO LARYNX


Make a transverse cut through the thyrohyoid membrane and esophagus well above the top of the larynx. Do not cut the epiglottis. Lift the larynx up out of the throat. Snip the esophagus to open it up to below the larynx.
Draw:
epiglottis
arytenoid cartilage
false vocal cords
vocal cords
glottis
esophagus

Here is a labeled view down into the larynx.

3)  MID-SAGITTAL SECTION THROUGH THE HEAD AND NECK: (p. 39 in Gilbert)

Students may make this cut in order to view the following set of features. First, taking care to be exactly mid-sagittal, make a clean cut with a sharp scalpel through successive soft tissues of the tongue (from below) and pharynx to bone (through the neck to the vertebral column), then use a sharp hacksaw to cut through skull and vertebra. Wash the cut surfaces to view the features more clearly. Note that one half will show the nasal septum, the other the conchae.

If you do not make this cut, view a cat which has been so prepared. Each student should locate the following features on this mid-sagittal section:


external nares (external nose openings)
nasal conchae
hard palate
soft palate
eustachian tube opening (near the sella turcica)
nasopharynx (“pharynx” in cat)
sphenoid sinus (directly above nasopharynx)
palatine tonsils (lateral rear wall of the mouth)
genioglossus muscle (main muscle of tongue)
fenulum (membrane ties tongue down)
Here is a labeled view of a midsagittal section of the head.

 

Determination of Respiratory Volumes

Determination of Respiratory Volumes

Respiratory volumes, those volumes of air which are exchanged during breathing, are important indicators of the functioning of the respiratory system, and can be measured through the use of a spirometer. We have two styles of spirometer: one has a turbine which rotates as air passes through it, and this rotation is geared down to drives the movement of a needle which indicates the volume of air. The second captures air in an inverted chamber the volume being indicated by the rise of the chamber in a bath of water.

dry_spirometer_zeroed_P4240143

SPIROMETER OPERATION: Attach a clean mouthpiece, and zero the instrument by rotating the cover so that 0 cc is lined up with the needle.

spirometer_vital capacity_P4240144

The subject should blow hard enough to move the needle, but not so hard as to jam the instrument. The operator should monitor the free movement of the needle as the subject breathes.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

If the needle sticks, try tilting the spirometer, tapping, etc, to insure its free operation. Perform each of the following measurements three times and determine the average of each
Wash the mouth piece when finished and drain in the rack

vital capacity This is best measured by inhaling as deeply as possible, then exhaling through the spirometer until no air remains in the lungs. It is the sum of tidal volume, inspirational volume and expiratory volume, and should equal the sum of the averages of the next three parameters. (Avg = 4800 cc). Perform the test three times, circle the largest of the three as your maximum vital capacity.

tidal volume is the volume of air in easy breathing. We suggest blowing five easy breaths into the spirometer without resetting the dial, and dividing the total by 5. It is difficult to get the spirometer to work smoothly, but don’t give up.
(Avg = 500 cc)

wet_Spirometer_P4240147

The wet spirometer is much more dependable than the dry spirometer as it measures the actual volume of air moved.
The tidal volume is much more easily measured with this instrument, although it is harder than you might think to blow one easy breath.  Repeat three times and average.

wet_spirometer_use_md

Use of a wet spirometer:
Zero to start with.
Place a clean mouthpiece in the end of the pipe.
Blow to produce the volume you are measuring, read the final volume expelled.
How did your wet spirometer vital capacity compare with the data from the dry spirometer?


vital capacity This is best measured by inhaling as deeply as possible, then exhaling through the spirometer until no air remains in the lungs. It is the sum of tidal volume, inspirational volume and expiratory volume, and should equal the sum of the averages of the next three parameters. (Avg = 4800 cc). This is the easiest volume to measure.
tidal volume is the volume of air in easy breathing. We suggest blowing five easy breaths into the spirometer without resetting the dial, and dividing the total by 5. It is difficult to get the spirometer to work smoothly, but don’t give up.
(Avg = 500 cc)
inspiratory capacity is the total volume of air which can be drawn in after exhalation of a tidal volume. Since the spirometer only measures blown air, measure by inhaling as deeply as possible, and expelling until lungs are relaxed at the end of the tidal exhalation.
(Avg = 3600 cc)
inspiratory reserve is the difference between tidal volume and inspirational capacity. Subtract the average tidal from the average inspirational capacity.
(Avg = 3100 cc)
expiratory reserve is total volume of air which can be expelled after exhalation of a tidal volume.
(Avg = 1200 cc)
Record all raw data in your notebook, calculate the average volumes, and report the averages into the class data table. Wash the mouthpieces well with soap and water before and after use.

Histology of the Respiratory System

Histology of the Respiratory System

Examine the following slides and illustrate the views, labeling the specified features. The page numbers (VE) are in di Fiore’s Atlas of Normal Histology, 9th Ed:

trachea.40x.P9271918

Trachea, c.s., Slide 5 (H 2430), VE: p. 243, 40x
Layers:
1)  (pink)pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and lamina propria
2)  (bluish-purple) tracheal rings, composed of hyaline cartilage
3)  (pink) adjacent layers of perichondrium
4)  (bluish) another layer of hyaline cartilage
5)  (pink) adventitia:  connective tissue surrounding the trachea

trachea_400x_P4183379

Trachea, c.s., Slide 5 (H 2430), VE: p. 243, 400x
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
cilia
goblet cell
basement membrane
lamina propria
tracheal glands: secrete mucus
mucous alveoli: large pale blue-gray cytoplasm, nuclei at periphery ducts of tracheal glands (lined with simple cuboid)
perichondrium
hyaline cartilage
chondrocytes
Here is a labeled view of tracheal histology.

bronchus_40x_P4183372

bronchus: VE: p. 247, at 40x: This overview shows the bronchus embedded in a field of aveoli.

bronchus_100x_P4183373

bronchus: find one with noted features, VE: p. 247, at 100x: alveoli
bronchus or bronchiole: significance or characteristics:
mucosal folds pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
lamina propria connective tissue underlying mucous membrane
smooth muscle forms a smooth pink ring outside mucosa
adventitia often filled with lymphoid tissue
lymph node nuclei numerous, stained blue-purple
pulmonary artery thick walled
pulmonary vein thin walled, collapsed, if present
Here is a labeled view of a bronchus.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

bronchus:  VE: p. 247, at 400x:
mucosal folds are clear
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is more distinct
lamina propria connective tissue underlying mucous membrane
smooth muscle forms a smooth pink ring outside mucosa

alveoli_400x_P4183376

Lung, l.s., Slide 4 (H 2460), page 245 & 247:
at edge of lung: at 400x

visceral pleura mesothelium covering the surface of the lung
alveoli
blood vessel (hard to spot, incorporated into alveolar wall, look for RBCs.)
respiratory bronchiole, if present (lined with cuboid epithelium)
Here are some images of lung pathologies (all about 100x):
Emphysema
Pneumonia
Tuberculosis

Addtional images with other magnifications of the specimens.

alveoli_700x_P4183377

Lung, l.s., Slide 4 (H 2460), page 245 & 247:
at edge of lung: at 600x

Look carefully and you can see erythrocytes in the lower right of the alveolus.
Here is a labeled view of the edge of the lung.