Mushrooms

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer’s yeast–well… if not a mushroom, it is a fungus…)

Hmmm… NOT Chicken of the Woods… I think it is probably Pleurotus ostreatus.

Chlorophyllum molybdites (Poisonous when eaten raw. Take my word for it…)

Chlorophyllum molybdites
Chlorophyllum molybdites

Coprinus comatus (Shaggy Mane)

Coprinus micaceus

Ustilago maydis (Corn Smut) A delicacy to many Mexicans, here prepares as a stuffing for quesidillas.

Lepiota Americana 

Morchella esculanta and its spores

Morchella semilibera (Semifree Morels)

Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom)

Pleuteus sp.

Polyporus squamousus (I call it “Black leg”)

Calvatea gigantia (Giant puffball, and its spores.)

Hmmm… who knows what this one is???

Auricularia auricula (Wood Ears–used in Oriental soups, etc.  Its consumption may be linked with low coronary disease rate in China!))

Making Ginger Ale at Home

Fermentation has been used by mankind for thousands of years for raising bread, fermenting wine and brewing beer. The products of the fermentation of sugar by baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a fungus) are ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. (Here is a page on the chemical reactions involved in glycolysis and fermentation.) Carbon dioxide causes bread to rise and gives effervescent drinks their bubbles. This action of yeast on sugar is used to ‘carbonate’ beverages, as in the addition of bubbles to champagne).

We will set up a fermentation in a closed system and capture the generated carbon dioxide to carbonate our home made ginger ale. You may of course adjust the quantities of sugar and/or extract to taste. Note that the lemon called for in step eight is optional. And if you want a spicier drink, you can increase the amount of grated ginger. As with any yeast fermentation, there is a small amount of alcohol generated in the beverage (about 0.4%).

Equipment

  • Clean 2 liter plastic soft drink bottle with cap (not glass: explosions are dangerous.)
  • funnel
  • Grater (preferably with fine “cutting” teeth
  • 1 cup measuring cup
  • 1/4 tsp and 1 Tbl measuring spoons

Ingredients

  • Cane (table) sugar [sucrose] (1 cup)
  • Freshly grated ginger root (1 1/2-2 tablespoons)
  • Juice of one lemon
  • Fresh granular baker’s yeast (1/4 teaspoon)
  • Cold fresh pure water

Directions

Once the bottle feels hard to a forceful squeeze, usually only 24-48 hours, place in the refrigerator. Before opening, refrigerate at least overnight to thoroughly chill. Crack the lid of the thoroughly chilled ginger ale just a little to release the pressure slowly. You do not want a ginger ale fountain!

Notes

Do not leave the finished ginger ale in a warm place any longer than the time it takes for the bottle to feel hard. Leaving it at room temperature longer than two days, especially in the summer when the temperature is high, can generate enough pressure to explode the bottle! (Speaking from experience here…) Once it is thoroughly chilled, there is little danger of explosion.

Filter the ginger ale through a strainer if you find floating pieces of ginger objectionable. These are found in the first glass or two poured, and, since most of the ginger sinks to the bottom, the last glass or so may require filtering too. Rinse the bottle out immediately after serving the last of the batch.

There will be a sediment of grated ginger and yeast at the bottom of the bottle, so that the last bit of ginger ale will be carry ginger fibers. Decant carefully if you wish to avoid this sediment.

The gas will develop faster in ginger ale than in home made root beer, presumably because there are more nutrients in it than in root beer extract.

Related

About alcohol made in home made Ginger Ale or Root Beer

Making Root Beer at Home

Fermentation has been used by mankind for thousands of years for brewing beer, fermenting wine and raising bread. The products of the fermentation of sugar by baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a fungus) are ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide causes bread to rise and gives effervescent drinks their bubbles. This action of yeast on sugar is used to ‘carbonate’ beverages, as in the addition of bubbles to champagne). [Note: In response to many questions I have received, here is a discussion of the small amount of ethyl alcohol which results in this root beer .]

We will set up a fermentation in a closed system and capture the generated carbon dioxide to carbonate root beer. You may of course adjust the quantities of sugar and/or extract to taste. You should be able to find root beer extract at your local supermarket.

Hires and A&W have a long history of making root beer extract. I find Zatarain’s extract especially delicious, but your definition of root beer may include a different assortment of flavors. If you can’t find it, Zatarain’s, a product of New Orleans can be ordered on the web.

Other flavors can be substituted for the root beer extract.

Try using a tablespoon of vanilla instead of the extract for a cream soda, and grated ginger and lemon for ginger ale.

IMPORTANT SAFETY CAUTION: As you follow the following recipe, be sure to refrigerate these bottle-fermented soft drinks as soon as the bottle feels hard. Especially in the summer, after a week or so, there is a risk of explosion!

[SUGAR SUBSTITUTES? Many people have emailed me asking about substituting artificial sweeteners for the sugar in this recipe. The short answer; no.

Sugar is required for yeast to generate carbon dioxide which carbonates the beverage. No sugar, no carbonation.

You might experiment with less sugar, and add a substitute to make up for the lower sweetness. I do not know how little sugar you can add and still get adequate carbonization, but 1/2 cup of sugar/ 2 liters makes plenty of carbonation.]

Equipment

  • Clean 2 liter plastic soft drink bottle with cap.
    I do not recommend glass bottles because of the risk of explosive shards of glass.
  • Funnel
  • 1 cup measuring cup
  • 1/4 tsp measuring spoon
  • 1 Tbl measuring spoon

Supplies

  • 1 cup table sugar [alias cane sugar or sucrose]
  • Zatarains’s Root Beer Extract (1 tablespoon)
  • Powdered baker’s yeast (1/4 teaspoon)
    Yeast for brewing would certainly work at least as well as baking yeast.
  • Cold, fresh water

Note on Zatarain’s Root Beer Extract:

When I could not find it locally, I ordered a case of 12 bottles for $18 from Zatarain’s, New Orleans, LA 70114. Previously, I had used Hires extract.

Instructions

 

NOTE: There will be a sediment of yeast at the bottom of the bottle, so that the last bit of root beer will be turbid. It will not hurt you, but you can decant carefully if you wish to avoid this sediment.

A Word about the Alcohol in Home Made Root Beer (or Ginger Ale):

I have received numerous inquiries about whether there might be alcohol in this home made soft drink. The answer is yes, but…

We have tested in our lab the alcoholic content which results from the fermentation of this root beer and found it to be between 0.35 and 0.5 %. Comparing this to the 6% in many beers, it would require a person to drink about a gallon and a half of this root beer to be equivalent to one 12 ounce beer.

I would call this amount of alcohol negligible, but for persons with metabolic problems who cannot metabolize alcohol properly, or religious prohibition against any alcohol, consumption should be limited or avoided. However, there are many high school biology labs who have made this beverage without any problems.

If you are one of these, I am interested to hear about your conclusions.