Making Buttermilk, Illustrated

Cultured buttermilk is probably the easiest and most fool proof fermented milk product to make. (Note that cultured is different than “old fashioned buttermilk.”) All you need is active cultured buttermilk for the starter, and fresh milk for it to act on (store bought is fine). The formation of buttermilk is based on the fermentation by the starter bacteria which turns milk sugar (lactose) into lactic acid. As lactic acid is formed, the pH of the milk drops and it gets tart. Milk proteins, most notably casein, are no longer as soluble under acid conditions and they precipitate out, causing what we recognize as clabbering. Thus the two marked characteristics of buttermilk, its tartness and its thickened nature, are both explained by the presence or the action of lactic acid. Additional by-products of fermentation give subtle variations in buttermilk flavor.

The acidity of buttermilk also explains its long refrigerator shelf life. Acid is a natural preservative because it inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Thus buttermilk keeps easily for weeks in your refrigerator. If you keep it longer, it may develop mold on the inner walls of the jar. This mold belongs to the same group of fungi which grow on cheese and is not dangerous. Remove it and the buttermilk can still be used for baking. However, because the desired bacteria may have died in older samples, buttermilk older than three to four weeks may not work as an inoculum to make buttermilk.

Ingredients & Equipment

  • 6-8 ounces active cultured buttermilk
  • Check the label: it needs to say cultured buttermilk, and is not out of date. (The bacteria die down over time)
  • 3 cups whole milk (store bought works. 2% or skimmed too, but less rich.) very clean 1 quart container with secure lid (I prefer Mason jars).

Directions

I have used this recipe for years to make buttermilk in large quantities. I like to use it for baking as well as drinking. It makes pancakes, waffles, and cakes rise very well. You can make any volume of buttermilk you like, so long as you hold to the proportions of 1 part buttermilk plus 4 parts whole milk.

Every year for years, I have prepared a gallon of buttermilk (an ingredient in my cornmeal waffles) for an annual waffle breakfast I serve at Clermont College, serving about 120 people. To make a gallon of buttermilk, I add 1 quart buttermilk to 1 gallon of fresh whole milk in a large container, mix, and pour back into the original containers. The next day, the whole five quarts are nicely thickened.

It works because Streptococcus lactis (or a mixed culture of S. lactis plus Leuconostoc citrovorum) ferments the lactose in milk to lactic acid. The acidic pH causes the protein in milk (most prominently casein, pink in the picture below) to precipitate, thickening the liquid. Because much of the lactose has been broken down to lactic acid, buttermilk should cause less of a problem for those who are lactose intolerant.

It may be that buttermilk could be made with a lower proportion of starter (i.e. 1+6 or 1+8. Anyone have experience with this?) However, the 1+4 ratio has worked so well that I have not wanted to mess with the proportions.

Related

Basic Cheese Making, Illustrated

Cultured Buttermilk from Scratch

  1. Allow a cup of filtered fresh raw milk to sit covered at room temperature until it has clabbered (usually several days).
  2. Place 1/4 cup of the clabbered milk in a pint mason jar, add a cup of fresh milk (does not have to be raw at this point), cover, shake to mix, allow to sit at room temperature until clabbered.
  3. Repeat this transfer of sub-culturing several more times until the milk dependably clabbers in 24 hours. Taste a small amount to confirm that it is tart, thickened, and has no off flavors. It should taste tart not bitter, for instance.
  4. To then make a quart of buttermilk with this culture, add 6 ounces of the buttermilk to a quart jar, fill with fresh milk, cover, shake to mix, allow to sit at room temperature until clabbered.
  5. Refrigerate.

Sour Cream Recipe

Sour Cream can be made with the same procedure as buttermilk, using one cup of cream mixed thoroughly with 2 Tbl fresh active buttermilk and letting it sit for 12-24 hours at room temperature. The higher butterfat in the cream, the thicker the finished sour cream.

Cultured versus Old Fashioned Buttermilk

“Cultured buttermilk,” commonly available in United States’ supermarkets, is not the same as “old fashioned buttermilk,” about which I get many questions. The latter is the liquid which remains after churned butter is removed. The two buttermilks bear few traits in common. See the following description of churning butter for the differences.

Churning Butter

In “olden times,” farm families would let freshly milked milk sit for half a day and skim off the cream which had risen.  This cream would be set aside in a cool place, around 50-60 F.  Each milking’s cream would be added until several gallons had accumulated. 

In the meantime, naturally occurring bacteria in the cream would cause it to slightly sour.  This souring increases the efficiency of churning.  The accumulated, slightly sour, cream would be churned at the optimum temperature (approximately 58 F) such that the butter was firm enough to separate out, but soft enough to stick together into a mass.  The butter was removed, washed in very cold water to remove the remaining milk, and salt worked in to preserve it.  The remaining liquid after the butter was removed was called buttermilk.  I call it “old fashioned buttermilk,”  which is slightly sour, has the consistency of  milk, but is slightly paler.  It has flakes of butter floating in it. 

Commercial manufacturers sometimes add colored “butter flakes” to imitate the old fashioned buttermilk.  However, the two products are very different, cultured buttermilk being thick and tart, old fashioned being thin, and slightly acid, depending on how sour the cream got before it was churned.

Microbiology of Buttermilk

See the page on Smearing and Staining of Bacteria to learn how to see these bacteria with a microscope, and the page on Milk Fermenting Bacteria for a demonstration and discussion of Streptococcus lactis, which is the bacterium which performs this fermentation. Below is a photomicrograph of buttermilk which has been smeared and gram stained. Cells of Streptococcus lactis can be seen as purple spots in a row. Casein is the pink mass covering most of the image.

Smearing and Staining of Bacteria, Bacteriological Smear and Staining Protocol

 

 

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Bacteriological Smear and Staining Protocol

Bacteriological Smear and Staining Protocol

Bacteria, like most cells, are essentially transparent, and must be stained in order to be easily visualized under the microscope. The specimen must be first spread out on a clean slide (preparation of a smear), heated gently to fix it to the slide, and then stained with an appropriate dye. Bacteria tend to be negatively charged, therefore positively-charged or basic dyes will bind to and stain them.

EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES:
clean microscope slide
soap and hot water
dH2O in dropper bottle
sample to be smeared
bacteriological loop (26 gauge Platinum as specified in Equipment for a Microbiological Work Station)
flame source
stains: 0.3% methylene blue or
Hucker’s Crystal Violet
tap water
paper towels or bibulous paper

PREPARE THE SMEAR:

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1. Secure a CLEAN microscope slide. The smear will not spread out properly if the slide is even slightly oily. If in doubt, wash slide well with soap and water, polish with clean paper towel or a Kimwipe (do not use brown recycled towels, they give off too much lint).

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2. a. If the specimen is solid: place a small drop of dH20 on a clean slide. Pick up small sample with a sterile loop and suspend in the water. Spread to the diameter of a dime (1.8 cm). The suspension should appear very faintly cloudy.
2. b. If liquid: place small drop of sample on microscope slide, spread to the diameter of a dime. Dilute with small drop of water if more than faintly turbid.

FIX THE SMEAR:

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3. Fix smear by lightly passing slide through a gentle flame. Do not overheat. The slide should not get too hot to comfortably hold. You are just trying to dry out the sample so that it will stick to the slide and not wash off in the next two steps.

STAIN THE FIXED SMEAR:

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4. Add a drop or two of stain (for instance, 0.3% methylene blue or Hucker’s Crystal Violet). Let sit 1 minute (or 30 seconds for Hucker’s Stain, a more powerful stain).

5. Gently rinse off excess stain with tap water for a few seconds until no more stain is seen to flow off. Gently blot dry (do not rub) with clean white paper towel. (Bibulous paper should be used if lint is a problem.)

VIEW THE STAINED SMEAR:

6. Examine with 10x objective to locate a region which is well spread and not too heavily stained. View briefly with 40x objective to confirm a well-spread, well-stained section. Then use 100x oil immersion objective to study specimen (FOLLOW Oil Immersion Protocol CAREFULLY). Adjust light for maximum clarity and carefully draw individual bacteria with all structures seen. Title the drawing as to sample, give the stain used and, at lower right, indicate the magnification of the illustrated view.

7. If you are not saving your slide, wash it well in hot soapy water, air dry in a plastic rack

Suggestions for specimens to view: Buccal smear, tooth scrapings, yogurt, buttermilk, yeast, fecal smear, vaginal smear, single colonies from agar plates, etc.