Embryonic Development of the Brain

Embryonic Development of the Brain

Studying the early development of the brain reveals structural and functional relationships between the portions of the adult brain. Since the early development of most vertebrates is similar, the 60-hour chick embryo can serve as a study organism roughly equivalent to the 5-week human embryo. See Martini, 5th Ed, pp 438-439, & handout from Balinsky (next page in packet).

Note: This prepared slide is unusually thick, so it is especially important to follow correct microscope protocol. (Do not ram the slide with the objective). Also, since the specimen mounting medium softens as it warms, remove the slide as soon as you are done, and allow it to cool flat on the surface of the desk before you return it to the slide case. Use the 4x objective to locate, illustrate, label and describe the bolded features of the chick embryo in the following table. As a study aid, here are two views of the 60-hour chick unlabeled and labeled.

Slide 7. Chick, 60-70 hour, whole mount, chicken (H 2195) Unlabeled: 40x chick embryo Labeled: labeled 40x chick embryo.

primitive vesicles intermediate vesicles mature brain components functions
prosencephalon telencephalon cerebrumlateral ventricles

[rudimentary nose]

control skeletal musclessensory perception


intelligence , consciousness

diencephalon thalamus sensory relay
hypothalamus regulation of autonomic activities
epithalamus (pineal) biological clock
[ optic cup] will become eye, vision
mesencephalon mesencephalon midbrain *corpora quadrigemina

cerebral peduncles

visual reflexesauditory reflexes

connection to cerebrum

rhombencephalon metencephalon cerebellum plan & coordinate voluntary movement,maintain balance
pons * commisural nerve tracts
myelencephalon medulla oblongata* regulates vital functions
[otic vesicle] hearing
* These constitute the brain stem, which regulates consciousness and some autonomic reflexes: respiration, coughing, swallowing, cardiovascular control.

When finished illustrating the embryonic brain, a brief, student-graded 10 question quiz will be given to see how well these features were learned.
Here is an excellent time-lapse YouTube video of early development from zygote to completed neurulation. (In German… 😉

Anatomy & Physiology 2002 Lab, Table of Contents, Syllabus and Lab Handouts

Anatomy & Physiology 2002 Lab

LECTURE NOTES: A&P 2002, Winter Quarter .

LABORATORY HANDOUTS: directory of pdf files for A&P 2002.

Here is an image bank for the First Test from which point and name questions will be drawn.

Here is an image bank for the Second Test from which point and name questions will be drawn.

Here is an image bank for the Third Test from which point and name questions will be drawn.

Here are labeled images from Winter Quarter, A&P 2002 for review for the final exam.

Here are sample pages from the recent Notebook Grading, 9 February 2016.


Table of Contents

Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Syllabus, Winter 2016

How to Succeed in a Fankhauser A&P 2002 Course

2002 Wordstems, Chronological listing

2002 Wordstems, Cumulative List with meanings. (Here is the cumulative list from 2001 Fall Semester, in case you need those meanings.)

Study Groups: Towards Effective Peer Education

Study Group Report Form

Schedule of Lab Activities, A&P 2002, Winter Quarter 2016

New Students must mount these protocols in their notebooks. All Students are responsible for them and should know them.

Laboratory Notebook Procedure
Page) Protocol Description

1)  Format Suggestions for Table of Contents (SAMPLE)
2) Use of Contact Paper for Mounting Handouts
3) Notebook Illustrations
4) The Binocular Microscope: Its Features & Care
5) Using & Evaluating the Microscope, storage grade sheet
6) Sample First Notebook Grade sheet from previous year
7) Sample Second Notebook Grade sheet from previous year
8) Slides for A&P 2002 (Winter): Special Senses to Reproductive System
9) Histology of the Eye
10) Dissection of the Eye and its Orbit in the Cat
11) Histology of the Inner Ear
12) Visual Reaction Time
13) Nystagmus Demonstration
14) Histology of Smell & Taste
15) Survey of Endocrine Organs
16) Histology of Selected Organs of the Endocrine System
17) Practice for Blood Cell Counts
18) Hematocrit Protocol
19) Blood Cell Counts: Erythrocytes
20) Blood Cell Counts: Leukocytes
21) Histology of Circulatory System and Vernier Scale address form
22) Practice reading Vernier Scales
23) Blood Pressure Determination
24) Electrocardiogram Protocol Here are EKG tracings for you to review and analyze: p. 1, p.2, p.3, p.4 Here is a nifty animation of the heart pumping correlated with the EKG (electrical activity of the heart).
25) Anatomy of the Circulatory System in the Cat, and the Anatomy of the Human Heart Anatomy of the Deer Heart. Here is an animation that shows the flow of blood through the heart.
26) Dissection of Cat to Show Circulatory Features
27) Arteries for A&P students
28) Veins for A&P students
29) Lymphatic System Anatomy and Histology
30) Organs of Respiration in the Cat
31) Histology of the Respiratory System
32) Determination of Respiratory Volumes
33) Anatomy of the Digestive System
34) Histology of the Digestive System
35) Vitamin C Introduction and Assay Reagents
36) Vitamin C Titration Protocol
37) Standardization of 0.01 N Iodine Titrant
38) Titration of Vitamin C in Fruit Juice
39) Urinalysis
40) Determination of Hourly Excretion Rate of Vitamin C
41) Titration Data Sheets: standardization, Vit C in Juice, vitamin C excretion rate
42) Vitamin C Excretion Problems
43) Solutions to Vitamin C Excretion Problems
44) Urinary Tract Anatomy and Urinary System Histology
45) Anatomy of the Reproductive System in the Cat
46) Histology of Reproductive Organs
47) Embryonic Development in the Chick

Human Birth, the three stages with YouTube illustrations